# INTRODUCTION to ASTRONOMY!

## Astronomical Picture of the Day subsection

Here is NASA's Astro Picture of the day!

AND HERE FOR ASTRO Picture of the day ARCHIVE

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# Center of our Galaxy... a giant BLACK hole?


Swirling around the dark mass beneath them, this moving animation
shows how scientists used the stars to identify an enormous black hole at the centre of our galaxy.

Researchers monitored the orbit of the stars circling the centre of the Milky Way
to map out the size of the phenomenon, which is four million times heavier than the sun.

Over 16 years they tracked 28 stars and determined the black hole, known as Sagittarius A*,
was influencing their movements.


## Tracking Stars Orbiting the Milky Way's Central Black Hole


Sequences showing the real images acquired with the VLT, and 2D and 3D animations illustrating the motion of the stars around the black hole at the centre of the Galaxy.

00:10 - zoom and pan the colour image obtained with the VLT;
00:56- zoom in real images of the galaxies, starting from a wide angle view, all the way to the sequence of real images showing the stars orbiting the black hole at the centre;
01:30- fade from the real data to a 3D animation of the stars around the black hole;
02:00- 3D animation showing the S2 star orbiting the black hole
02:35- 2D animation with all the measured stars, reproducing the real observations.

Credit:
ESO/ S. Gillessen, R. Genzel

In a 16-year long study, using several of ESO's flagship telescopes, a team of German astronomers has produced
the most detailed view ever of the surroundings of the monster lurking at our Galaxy's heart —
a supermassive black hole. The research has unravelled the hidden secrets of this tumultuous region
by mapping the orbits of almost 30 stars, a five-fold increase over previous studies.
One of the stars has now completed a full orbit around the black hole.

Credit:
ESO/ S. Gillessen, R. Genzel

source:



## Enormous Structures Might be Hiding in the Center of our Galaxy


This annotated artist's conception illustrates our current understanding of the structure of the Milky Way galaxy.
Image Credit: NASA


# This section for SPECIALTY ONLINE VIEWERS!

A new way to view the Milky Way! It's Chromoscope.net!

Another way to view the MOON! Zoom in with near side!

Check out Panning our galaxy!

Another one is Stellarium open source planetarium for computer

Here is a website dedicated A website to dispaly popular Astronomical both visually and entertainally

A great Individual Photographic effort It's Skysurvey.org!

Clicking on the info button (the i icon) at will produce constellation stick figures, the ecliptic, and the names of some DSOs, the bright stars, and the planets.

Here for a competitor to Google SKY..... For ASTRONOMY WIKI AND INTERACTIVE MAP!

# This section for REPORTS, BLOGS FORUMS

From Sky and Telescope Magazine Behind the black.com

From Astronomy Magazine it's Bob Berman's Blog site Sky Man Bob.com

From the denver science musuem David Grinspoon's site Funky science.net

An online blog From ABC Media network

Here is something different Destination space's Chat room

And here for Universe Today.COM

A companion site to Universe today is Cosmoquest.org!

And another companion site Know the cosmos.com

Here is a Video Blog site ... Astrocast.tv!

A blog site Hubble site for the citizen to get involved

Another site is Hubbles Universe Unfiltered"

Yet another is Hubbles Deep Astronomy

Hubble site's Hubbles list of Blogs

## REPORTS

And here for Technical report on the mini galaxy in Hercules

Here is a report on Telescope Arms Race

Here is the National Science Foundation's Advancing Astronomy in the coming decade(2010-2019):Opportunities and Challenges

Here is the NSF's advisory committe's report: New Worlds , New Horizons in Astroonomy and AstroPhysics

### The (a)Periodic Table of Messier Objects


In May 2013 I finished photographing (using an astronomical CCD camera and a refractor)
all 110 Messier objects, a project that took about 11 months.
I wanted to make a poster out of the 110 photos, and after a little thinking I realized that there
is another famous collection of objects (which also number a little over 100) which are conventionally
displayed in a chart divided into categories.  So with that in mind I attempted to create an arrangement
of the Messier Objects inspired by the Periodic Table.  Below is the result.


## FORUMS

And here is Cosmic Controversy.com

This one from Astronomy Magazine

This one from Astronomy daily.com

And from Astromart

Amatuer Astronomy From Phill Harrington.net

AND a personal blog Jonathan's Space Report

# This section for the "zoo" family of webpages.....

And a complimentary site is... Moon Zoo.org

You can assist in finding... SUPERNOVAS!

And You can assist in finding Exo planets!!!

Here is Old weather.org

And another one... Solar Storm Watch!

And here for Merging galaxies!

Another one searching for super novas!

You can go with the Pluto Mission with.. ICE HUNTERS (for pluto!)

Here is ICE hunters demo!

And the science of ICE Hunters Science

AND A tutorial for ICE HUNTERS

How about Writing messages in Galaxies!

A new project is Sea floor explorer

Another one is Cyclone center

YEt another new one is Space Warps

Help the zoo to Explore mars!

Another new project is: disk detective find exo-planets!

This site for a distributive effort to classify Galaxies...

The Galaxy Zoo's FORUM

THe Galaxy Zoo's Blog

And Galaxy Zoo's General Information

This is Galaxy Zoo's list of LINKS

This is galaxy zoo's Cyclone center blog page

Another new zoo project Sun Spotter.org!

Yet another Zoo [roject the ASteroid zoo

# This section for Observing Auroras.

## NOAA DOES Satellitte Auroal MAPS

Here is the forecast for auroral activity Here for Current Auroral activity

AND HERE .... Auroral forecasts....

Here is a new service for Aurora alerts! It's Space Weather Phone - Auroral alert system

And here for Spacespot.com another astro community effort

This site for For paricle breeze images

# This section is to monitor the sun!!!!

Click here for a page of The Latest real time images of the sun

This site for Solar observations

Here are images from nasa Images from JSC nasa

Didier Favre's images portray the prominence activity quite well!!!

And here is information on THE CURRENT STATE OF THE SUNSPOT CYCLE ON THE SUN!

### Here is the current Soho EIT IMAGE

The Current Alpha Patrol Network Image

For those who like to watch the progress of these storms the following sites are useful:

Today's Space Weather updated every 5 minutes

- NOAA's Space EnvironmentCenter:)

Solar-Terrestrial Activity

(daily postings with occasional

NOAA's Current Solar Magnetic Index, Speed, and Pressure Dials:

Tyrell Corporation's

Solar Storm Monitor

Yet another site to observe the sun: Locheed Solar Observatory

This site is recommended by Art Bell soho's solar observatory

The New Jersey Institute of Technology solar observatory NJIT Solar observatory

Caltech solar observatory Caltech Solar observation page

Here is a sun observing site Sun Earth Day

Here is It's Solar Movie.com

Here is the naval research lab site Lasco site

Here is Soho's Self updating solar observations

A new online It's Helioviewer.org

also it's Solar monitor.org

Real time Images from SOHO

Observing in a diferent frequency NSO/GONG in H Alpha Network Monitoring

### six hour GEOS x-ray flux monitor

And Soloar Soft's Latest Events

## Animation of Looping Promminces on our Sun on August 20, 2013


Animation of looping prominences on the western limb of the Sun on August 20, 2013. Credit and copyright: Michel Collart.

This close-up movie of looping, dancing prominences on the Sun looks like something you�d see from one of the spacecraft
we have studying the Sun, such as the Solar Dynamics Observatory. However, the images were taken from Earth by
amateur astronomer Michel Collart from France. He was able to capture incredible detail (see his list of equipment below)
of this region on the Sun�s western limb, and in a series of 120 frames,
shows a lot of activity taking place on the morning of August 20, 2013.


# Spaceweather.com

and.......... Spaceweather.com

Real time Images from Space weather.com

Here is space weather's Fly by checker

# This section for Infrared astronomy

## Here is the first Infrared Photo:

Here is the first press release First light for infrared

## Cosmic beacons reveal the Milky Way’s ancient core


Astronomers have discovered that the central 2,000 light-years within the Milky Way Galaxy hosts an ancient population of stars.
By Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics, Potsdam, Germany  |  Published: Friday, April 22, 2016

The plane of our galaxy as seen in infrared light from the WISE satellite.
The bulge is a distinct component in the central part of the galaxy and rotates cylindrically.
An ancient population, which does not exhibit cylindrical rotation, has been detected in the inner Milky Way.
This population is estimated to be 1 percent of the mass of the bulge, and it is likely to have been one of the
first parts of the Milky Way to form.
NOAO/AURA/NSF/AIP/A. Kunder


# This section for Amateur Astronomers

Here is a great resource for amateurs Wikipedia's list of Astronomical catalogues

Instead of an Internet Cafe we have: The Astronomy Cafe

Here is another great individual effort It's David Rutledge's Astro Page

AND A MAGAZINE Sky and telescope's website

And the other magazine Astronomy Magazine


Welcome to Steve Shellman's amateur astronomy page. I am a social scientist studying political conflict and terrorism
by day and an amateur astronomer and astro-imager by night. Here you'll find some of my latest images,
information on my equipment, observatory, and other resources. Thanks for stopping by.
All of the images on this site were taken by me - good, bad, or indifferent.


Yet another Amatuer site is: Astrophotography By Ken Crawford

Here is the site for International Spacewatch Website

The president of the Main Line Commodore User's group is a member of the Delaware Amatuer Astronomers

And here is David Rutledge's LInks page

Here are links for Youth in Astronomy

Here is Youth In Astronomy

And here is Dr. Robert Stencel Of Denver University

This is a student site for Hubble observations! Latest Hubble Pictures

Here is the main Students Exploring and Developing Space

Here is the web site for a club From the country of Chile

### Organizations for the light pollution problem!

To assist the IDA is EARTH HOUR

AND here is Globe at night.org

As a piece of information, for the beginner about the Limitation of human senses
Here is a graph that illustrates why astronomers construct telescopes
to see outsde of human ranges. It also makes me think that some animals experience the world very differently.

Here is digital imaging from Richard Berry His main page

And a picture recomended by the dvaa! Imaging with Orion's StarShoot Pro
6-Megapixel Bayer-Array CCD Camera

University of Pennsylvania Department of Physics U of PENN Astronomy and Physics

Here is the Hitch Hiker Guide to Astronomy!!!

This site for the Astronomical Society of Harrisburg PA

Here is the web page for The Naylor Observatory of the Harrisburg Astronomical Soceity

## Here are other great independent efforts

Here is....... Ozor's Online Astronomy Club

Here is page specifying Philadelphia Area regional Astro Events

Here is the New Philadelphia Science Fest

### Here is Damien peach's effort:

And His Website: damian Peach's Website

### Jupiter by Damien Peach

Deep Sky Videos From Brady Haran

### This section for the Texas Star Party

Here is The Texas Star Party

Here for The Fort Davis site

Here for Prude Ranch Site

This section for Amatuer Webcams in Astronomy

### Astronomy video report from Accuweather.com

astronomy&category=astronomy">

An excellent personal effort Amatuer Astro imaging...fourthdimensionastroimaging.com

And here Also worthwhile

### This section for Amateur Astronomers

Here is some thing for Amateur astronomers It's a Telescope Limiting Magnitude Calculator

From the DVAA's June 2, 2012 Meeting's lecture 3d animated MOONDUST WEBPAGE

Here is a resource for Building your own telescopes Webster Telescopes!

this is a resource for Digital astrophotography"

### Local Astronomers groups

Weather Observation conditions From Metroblue for Willow grove PA!

Websites recomended by DVAA members on the e-List

A new class of objects? Or Alien Beacon?

Another site for Amateur Astronomers is the Astronomical Leaugue The Astronomical Leaugue

Here is an amateur site for requsting your own astronomical Observation it's

The International Space Station Amateur Space Telescope

Here is a great site for computer amateur's Massive HOT LINKS FOR AMATEURS

The American Astronomical Society Has a site:

THE A A S

For you Amatuer Astronomers, Here is the

The Hipparcos Catalog with utilities!

For amatuer astronomers, here is an individual Observatory effort the Braeside Observatory in Arizona

For Amatuers..it's regional Seeing and transparency forecasts!

For amteur Astronomers it's Gary Seronik

# This section for the Hubble Telescope

## A 3D model of the Homunculus Nebula in Eta Carinae � some 7,500 light-years from Earth


A double-lobed star explosion seen by the Hubble Space Telescope
has a more complicated backstory than astronomers ever imagined,
according to a 3D model of the ill-fated star's eruption.

A 3D model of the Homunculus Nebula in Eta Carinae � some 7,500 light-years from Earth
� shows the aftermath of the burst that gave rise to the nebula


## From the hubblesite

This is the Space telescope Main page

Here is Hubble site !!!

Hubble site's is the Hubblesite's legacy archive

And here is Hubble site news release archive

A related site Tony Darnell's Deep Astronomy.com

# This section for cosmic background experiments at the University of Pennsylvania

here is the mainpage for The Univesity of Pennsylvanis's UPEEN5 Home page

This link for NASA's Microwave Anisotropy Probe Web Page

Here is the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotrophy Probe

And the University of Pennsylvania's cosmo;ogist Max Tegmark

## Microscopic "Timers" Reveal Likely Source of Galactic Space Radiation


A cluster of massive stars seen with the Hubble Space Telescope. The cluster is surrounded by clouds of interstellar
gas and dust called a nebula. The nebula, located 20,000 light-years away in the constellation Carina,
contains the central cluster of huge, hot stars, called NGC 3603. Recent research shows that galactic cosmic rays
flowing into our solar system originate in clusters like these.
Like a July 4 fireworks display, a young, glittering collection of stars looks like an aerial burst.
The cluster is surrounded by clouds of interstellar gas and dust—the raw material for new star formation.
The nebula, located 20,000 light-years away in the constellation Carina, contains a central cluster of huge, hot stars, called NGC 3603.
This environment is not as peaceful as it looks. Ultraviolet radiation and violent stellar winds have blown out an enormous cavity
in the gas and dust enveloping the cluster, providing an unobstructed view of the cluster.
Most of the stars in the cluster were born around the same time but differ in size, mass, temperature, and color.
The course of a star's life is determined by its mass, so a cluster of a given age will contain stars in various stages of their lives,
giving an opportunity for detailed analyses of stellar life cycles. NGC 3603 also contains some of the most massive stars known.
These huge stars live fast and die young, burning through their hydrogen fuel quickly and ultimately ending their lives in supernova explosions.
Star clusters like NGC 3603 provide important clues to understanding the origin of massive star formation in the early, distant universe.
Astronomers also use massive clusters to study distant starbursts that occur when galaxies collide, igniting a flurry of star formation.
The proximity of NGC 3603 makes it an excellent lab for studying such distant and momentous events.
This Hubble Space Telescope image was captured in August 2009 and December 2009 with the Wide Field Camera 3 in both
visible and infrared light, which trace the glow of sulfur, hydrogen, and iron.

Credit: NASA, ESA, R. O'Connell (University of Virginia), F. Paresce (National Institute for Astrophysics, Bologna, Italy),
E. Young (Universities Space Research Association/Ames Research Center),
the WFC3 Science Oversight Committee, and the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA)


# Astronomy Magazines

SKY & TELESCOPE MAGAZINE,Sky & Telescope Publishing

Here is Sky and Telescope's Internet resource page

This page is a sub page of mine to access special Sky & Telescope services

This is sub page to link you to Large Telescope projects!

The Large Scope Resource page

This is Kalmbach Publishing's Sister Publication E A R T H

Astronomy Magazine has an alternate WEB PAGE Astronomy's magazines alternate web page

## Possible Bright Supernova Lights Up Spiral Galaxy M61 by BOB KING on OCTOBER 30, 2014


An animation showing the new supernova in the galaxy M61 photographed on October 30, 2014,
paired with an older archive photo Credit: Ernesto Guido, Martino Nicolini, Nick Howes
I sat straight up in my seat when I learned of the discovery of a possible new supernova in the bright Virgo galaxy M61.
Since bright usually means close, this newly exploding star may soon become visible in smaller telescopes.
It was discovered at magnitude +13.6 on October 29th by Koichi Itagaki of Japan, a prolific hunter of supernovae
with 94 discoveries or co-discoveries to his credit.


Here is a page devoted to Space news Jonathan's Weekly Newsletter about Space

From the Japanese space agency Earth rise from the MOON!

### The higgs boson-- explained!


This group of galaxies has been nicknamed the "Cheshire Cat" because of its resemblance to a smiling feline.
Some of the cat-like features are actually distant galaxies whose light has been stretched and bent by the
large amounts of mass contained in foreground galaxies. This is an effect called "gravitational lensing,"
predicted by Einstein's Theory of General Relativity that is celebrating its 100th anniversary. X-rays from
Chandra show that the two "eye" galaxies and the smaller galaxies associated with them are slamming into one another
in a giant galactic collision.

X-ray: NASA/CXC/UA/J.Irwin et al; Optical: NASA/STSci


## NEARBY SUPERNOVAS SHOWERED EARTH WITH IRON


Visible, infrared, and X-ray light image of Kepler's supernova remnant (SN 1604) located about 13,000 light-years away.
Credit: NASA, ESA, R. Sankrit and W. Blair (Johns Hopkins University).



The Local Bubble is a 300-light-year long region that was carved out of the interstellar medium by supernovas
(Source: Science@NASA)


## Home/News/New observations of FO Aquarii reveal strange behavior within this cannibalistic binary system


An artist’s rendition of cataclysmic variable binary system, in which a compact star pulls material off its companion and consumes it.
FO Aquarii, a famous binary system comprised of a compact white dwarf stripping mass from a low-mass companion star, has decided to misbehave.
When a National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) student at the University of Notre Dame
turned the school’s 0.8-meter telescope on these stars, she observed a pattern of behavior that has been, thus far, unexplainable.
CREDIT: NASA



## THE MAGELLENIC CLOUDS STAY CONNECTED BY A STRING OF STARS


This image shows the two "bridges" that connect the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. The white line traces the bridge
of stars that flows between the two dwarf galaxies, and the blue line shows the gas.
Image: V. Belokurov, D. Erkal and A. Mellinger



Small and Large Magellanic Clouds over Paranal Observatory
Credit: ESO/J. Colosimo



The Large Magellanic Cloud. Image: Public Domain from wikipedia



A part of the Small Magellanic Cloud galaxy is dazzling in this image from NASA’s Great Observatories.
The Small Magellanic Cloud is about 200,000 light-years way from our own Milky Way spiral galaxy.
Credit: NASA.


## Hubble Snaps Photo of Unusual Spiral Galaxy NGC 6753


This image shows the spiral galaxy NGC 6753, which lies in the constellation Pavo,
Image credit: NASA / ESA / Hubble / Judy Schmidt.
NGC 6753 is a whirl of color in this remarkable image from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope
— the bursts of blue throughout the spiral arms are regions filled with young stars
glowing brightly in ultraviolet light, while redder areas are filled with older stars
emitting in the cooler near-infrared
For detailed information on NGC 6753


## ASTRONOMERS FIND THE MISSING NORMAL MATTER IN THE UNIVERSE, STILL LOOKING FOR DARK MATTER, THOUGH


The structure of the universe at the largest scale.
Credit: NASA, ESA, and E. Hallman (University of Colorado, Boulder)



All-sky data obtained by the ESA’s Planck mission, showing the different wavelenghts.
Credit: ESA



IR map of the whole Galaxy showing the plane and bulge of the Galaxy full of stars and dust.
Credit: SDSS



This illustration shows the evolution of the Universe, from the Big Bang on the left, to modern times on the right.
Image: NASA


## ASTRONOMERS FIND THE MOST DISTANT SUPERNOVA EVER: 10.5 BILLION LIGHT-YEARS AWAY


This image shows the incredibly distant and ancient supernova DES16C2nm.
The supernova was discovered by the Dark Energy Survey.
Image: Mat Smith and DES collaboration.



This image from 2015 shows the same area of sky before DES16C2nm exploded.
Image: Mat Smith and DES collaboration.



The DECam in operation at its home in the Chilean Andes. The extremely sensitive,
570 megapixel camera is mounted on the Victor M. Blanco 4-meter Telescope
at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory.
Image: DES/CTIO


## ASTRONOMERS SEE A DEAD STAR COME BACK TO LIFE THANKS TO A DONOR STAR


The ESA's INTEGRA observatory  has witnessed a "zombie" neutron star being re-energized by the solar wind
of its companion red giant star, and coming back to life in a burst of x-rays.
Image: ESA



The red giant and the neutron star may have traveled different evolutionary pathways,
Image: ESA



An artist’s illustration of  ESA's INTEGRA observatory.
INTEGRAL was launched in 2002 to study some of the most energetic phenomena in the universe.
Image: ESA


# This section astro databases

Here is the database solstation.com

And here for Internet stellar database.com

AND HERE FOR Atlas of the UNIVERSE

From the DVAA's E-list Webb Deepsky from Great Britian

Here is Webb Deep sky Catalog of the Brightest Planetary Nubulae in .pdf format

The web site for American Association of Variable Star Observers

To search data on Nasa's Planetary database of Space missions click here

A database for NASA"s IPAC Extragalactic DATABASE

Another databse The Simbad Astronomical database

This the The Hubble Legacy Archive!!

A database for Photograghs from The STScI Digitized Sky Survey

## New Observing Program: Active Galactic Nuclei By Al LAmpert, Delaware Valley Amateur Astronomers

On False and true double quasars

Catalogue of Bright Quasars and BL Lacertae Objects

For information on how to convert from redshift to distnce

Observing Variable Galaxies

The Million Quasars (Milliquas) Catalogue

## Astronomers Create Largest-Ever Catalog Of Cosmic Voids

Welcome to the Public Cosmic Void Catalog


The cosmic voids mapped by the team are not completely empty and do contain some luminous elliptical galaxies,
perhaps not unlike NGC 2768, an elliptical galaxy located in the northern constellation of Ursa Major (The Great Bear).
NGC 2768 appears here as a bright oval on the sky, surrounded by a wide, fuzzy cloud of material.
Credit: ESA/NASA, Hubble; Acknowledgement: Judy Schmidt



The Fornax Galaxy Cluster is one of the closest such groupings beyond our own Local Group of galaxies.
Credit: ESO and Digitized Sky Survey 2. Acknowledgment: Davide De Martin



slice of the new void map. Each red point is a galaxy and the blue circles show the locations
and rough sizes of voids. The blue spheres just show the typical sizes of the voids, but not the correct shapes.
Credit: Mao et al.


# The Delaware Valley Amatuer Astronomers (DVAA)

And here is The dvaa's events page!!

## Observing conditions of the DVAA'S Remote Observatory

### Wind Conditions for the Pennsylvania Area

The DVAA's own Galaxiy main page

### The DarkHorse Observatory

The DarkHorse Observatory in Kimberton, PA!

### The Kimberton Sky CAM

Here is Richard Steinberg's (DVAA Member) Home page with his picture collection organized!

Another one is The Ches mont Amateur Atronomers

Another one is The Bucks Mont astronomical association

And here is The Lehigh Valley Amateur Astronomers

A new local (to the Philadelphia area) Amateur Astronomer club Welcome to Coyle Field Astronomers!

And the Astro group Based at the Franklin Institute, the Rittenhouse Astronomical Society!

These folks create educational astronomy simulations: Contempory Laboratory Experinces in Astronomy (CLEA)

Another source for Astronomical Information: Astronomy HyperText Textbook

Good index of astronomy resources: Ames Area Amatuer Astronomers

Astronomy Education ResourcesAstroed

This is the main page for Astronomical quizes it's The Solar System Net

## This section for CLEAR DARK SKY PREDICTIONS from www.cleardarksky.com

Here is the latest Clear dark sky forecast for the dvaa's observatory

The Parking lot of Francis E Walter's DAM

THE DVAA's Dark Sky Location

THe DVAA'S remote observatory

Here's the state site, which has directions and weather to Cherry Spring State Park

And here for the BFSP site:

Here is the Starcount project!

Here is the DVAA's dark sky locations

Here is the DVAA LINKS PAGE

Here is the Images by members of the dvaa gallery

Here is the web site of The Delmarva Stargazers!!

On March 13, 1998 the DVAA visited the Eastern College Astronomy
department, The following web site is their web site!
Eastern College's Astronomy department

# This section is the start for The National Virtual Observatory

## Stunning animation of The Heart Nubula

Wtch several videos about the Magellanic Clouds

Milky Way Center Region Mosaic Cool Pic, Pan and zoom. Milky Way Center Region Mosaic
Image S.Guisard / ESO, � St�phane Guisard "Los Cielos de Chile"


This image is a 1 billion pixel RVB mosaic of the galactic center region (340 millions pixels in each R,V and B color).
It shows the region spanning from Sagittarius (with the Milky Way center and M8/M20 area on the left) to Scorpius
(with colorful Antares and Rho Ophiuchus region on the right) and cat paw nebula (red nebula at the bottom).
This mosaic was assembled from 52 different sky fields made from 1200 individual images and 200 hours total exposure time,
final image size is 24000x14000 pixels. The images were taken with a SBIG STL camera + Takahashi FSQ106Ed f/3.6 telescope
and NJP160 mount from the clear skies of ESO Paranal Observatory in Chile.
This mosaic is one of the three parts of the ESO Gigagalaxy Zoom project together with this incredible whole sky mosaic image
by ESO/S.Brunier and this fantastic ESO mosaic image of the Lagoon nebula region.


Rochester Institute's Supernova virtual observatory

Here is Great Britain's ASTROGRID

Here is NASA's Eclipse Prediction web site

Here is a great library for AstroPhysics stuff it's Lawerence Livermore archive!!

Here is the link to the National Virtual Observatory

And here for National Teragrid!

Here is the site for The Sloan Digital Sky Survey

Here is another site for The Sloan Digital Sky Survey its SDSS.org

OR here CAS.SDSS.ORG

A great new site for A Website to display popular astronomy both
visually and entertainally

AND the Image database section

# This section is for DEEP SKY

## Any relation to the recent solar activity. Probably not but it is interesting that

Here is a High resolution picture the Sombreo Galaxy

And here for Goddard Space Flight Center's SkyMorph

Another site is HEASARC Data Archive

Just to be fair, I am including a site that claims That the BIG BANG IS WRONG

Here is Princeton University's Lograrithmic maps of the universe

And here for Princeton UNiversity's ASTRO Main page

Here is a great amatuer observatory it's The Panther observatory

Hubble Data Archive

This Colorado site is Center for astrophysics & Science

Here is CASA's Colorado's Relativity/Black hole simulator

Here is NASA's Horizon's online Ephemeris

WEBSTARS: Astrophysics in Cyberspace

This site for the new Science of Gravity observations it's L I G O!

## Monster black hole wakes up after 26 years Posted on 26 June 2015 by Astronomy Now


This animation show the patch of the sky where the black-hole binary system V404 Cygni is located,
as observed with the IBIS instrument on ESA’s Integral gamma-ray observatory. Before the outburst on 19 May 2015:
V404 Cygni is not present, and its position is marked with a cross. After the outburst on 18 June 2015:
V404 Cygni is the brightest source in the field. The two sources Cygnus X-1 and Cygnus X-3, present in both images,
are some of the brightest objects in the X-ray sky. Other transient sources are also present in both images,
highlighting the great variability of the high-energy sky. Image credits: Carlo Ferrigno,
Integral Science Data Centre, Geneva, Switzerland. AN animation by Ade Ashford.


## Hubble finds evidence of galaxy star birth regulated by black hole fountain


Astronomers have uncovered a unique process for how the universe's largest elliptical galaxies continue making stars
long after their peak years of star birth. NASA's Hubble Space Telescope's exquisite high resolution and ultraviolet-light
sensitivity allowed the astronomers to see brilliant knots of hot blue stars forming along the jets of active black holes
found in the centers of giant elliptical galaxies. Combining Hubble data with observations from a suite of ground-based and space telescopes,
two independent teams found that the black hole, jets, and newborn stars are all parts of a self-regulating cycle. High-energy jets
shooting from the black hole heat a halo of surrounding gas, controlling the rate at which the gas cools and falls into the galaxy.



This sample of galaxies, as seen by Hubble, shows chains of star formation in ultraviolet light.
This star formation in each galaxy is a product of the action of the jets from a central black hole
that controls infalling gas from the galaxy's halo.
NASA/ESA/G. Tremblay (Yale Univ.)/R. Mittal (Rochester Institute of Technology
and Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics)
Astrono


## ANDROMEDA’S FIRST SPINNING NEUTRON STAR FOUND 1 Apr , 2016 by Evan Gough


Andromeda's spinning neutron star. Though astronomers think there are over 100 million of these
objects in the Milky Way, this is the first one found in Andromeda.
Image: ESA/XMM Newton.


## Larget Cosmic Object Known as of April, 2016


Astronomers have discovered the largest known structure in the universe, a clump of active galactic cores
that stretch 4 billion light-years from end to end. The structure is a light quasar group (LQG),
a collection of extremely luminous Galactic Nulcei powered by supermassive central black holes.


## Astronomers Witness Birth of Massive Cluster Galaxy


B.H.C. Emonts et al found that the Spiderweb, a massive galaxy in the center of a distant protocluster,
is forming from a large reservoir of molecular gas. In this artist’s conception of the protocluster,
the protogalaxies are shown in white and pink, and the blue indicates the location of the carbon monoxide gas.
Image credit: M. Kornmesser / ESO.



The Red White And Blue Nebula!!!


## Supernova viewed by a Gravitional lens


This composite image shows the gravitationally lensed Type Ia supernova iPTF16geu,
as seen with different telescopes. The background image shows a wide-field view of the night sky
as seen with the Palomar Observatory located on Palo-mar Mountain, California.
Far Left Image: Captured by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, this optical light observation shows the lens galaxy
and its surrounding environment in the sky. Center Left Image: Captured by the Hubble Space Telescope,
this is a 20x zoom infrared image of the lens galaxy. Center Right Image: Captured by the Hubble Space Telescope,
this 5x optical light zoom reveals the four gravitationally lensed images of iPTF16geu.
Far Right Image: Captured by the Keck Telescope, this infrared observation features the
four gravitationally lensed images of iPTF16geu and the gravitational “arc” of its host galaxy.
(Credit: Joel Johansson/Stockholm University)


## THE ANT NEBULA ACTUALLY HAS INTENSE LASER EMISSIONS COMING FROM ITS CORE


From ground-based telescopes, the so-called "ant nebula" (Menzel 3, or Mz 3)
resembles the head and thorax of a garden-variety ant. This dramatic NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image,
showing 10 times more detail, reveals the "ant's" body as a pair of fiery lobes protruding from a dying,
Sun-like star. Credit: NASA/ESA/Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA)


# This section for research in Cosmology

Grand Challenge Cosmology Consortium: Large super computer
simulations of structure formation in the Universe

Scale of the Universe From the smallest to the largest of the Universe!!!

A new cosmology research site Cosmo quest.org!!!

A new site for Cosmology information

Here is an online Astronomy course like Khan Academy!

## Milky Way galaxy finds home in the Laniakea Super-cluster


September 3, 2014 4:08 PM EDT - Galaxy superclusters are the biggest structures in the universe.
Researchers at the University of Hawaii at Manoa discovered a new technique that maps the universe by redrawing boundaries.
Our home supercluster is named Laniakea, which means �immeasurable heaven� in Hawaiian


## Simulation: Most detailed simulation of our Universe


How do you show off 13 billion years of cosmic growth?
One way that astronomers can figure that out is through visualizations
� such as this one from the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, called Illustris.

Billed as the most detailed computer simulation ever of the universe (done on a fast supercomputer),
you can slowly see how galaxies come alight and the structure of the universe grows.
While the pictures are pretty to look at, the Kavli Foundation also argues this is good for science.


## A simulation of large-scale structure formation


Study of structure formation in the Universe is an area of forefront research in astrophysics.
The early evolution, when the seed fluctuations are small, can be calculated analitycally on a piece of paper
without the help of large supercomputers. As the fluctuations grow in their amplitude,
the evolution becomes too complex and theorists have to use computers to follow the subsequent evolution.


## Black Holes and Worm Holes


a short video about black holes and worm holes taken from a show called the universe.
watch their other eposite about planets, galaxies and ofcourse the rest of univeres
Category
Education


# Gravity Waves

## What do gravitational waves do?


But what do gravitational waves do? For that, let us look at a simplified, entirely hypothetical situation.
(The following are variations on images and animations originally published here on Einstein Online.)
Consider particles drifting in space, far from any sources of gravity. Imagine that the particles (red)
are arranged in a circle around a center (marked in black):
If a simple gravitational wave were to pass through this image, coming directly at the reader,
distances between these particles would change rhythmically as follows:



Note the distinctive pattern: When the circle is stretched in the vertical direction,
it is compressed in the horizontal direction, and vice versa. That’s typical for gravitational waves (“quadrupole distortion”).
It’s important to keep in mind that this animation, and the ones that will follow,
exaggerate the gravitational wave’s effect quite considerably.


## Gravitational waves moving through space


Just remember that neither the lines nor the whitish surface is physical. On the contrary,
if we want the particles to be maximally susceptible to the effect of the gravitational wave,
we should make sure they are truly floating freely, and certainly they shouldn’t be linked in any way!



As you can see, the wave is propagating through space. For instance, the point where the vertical distances
within the circle of particles is maximal is moving towards the observer. The wave nature can be seen even more clearly
if we look at this cylinder directly from the side:



As you can see, the wave is propagating through space. For instance, the point where the vertical distances
within the circle of particles is maximal is moving towards the observer.
The wave nature can be seen even more clearly if we look at this cylinder directly from the side:


## Objects in orbit


The simplest situation that produces gravitational waves in the cosmos is almost ubiquitous:
two or more objects orbiting around each other under their own gravity.
The waves they generate are reminiscent to a very slow mixer in the middle of a pool of water:
This is not something you would see, of course. The wave that is pictured here represents the strength
of the minute changes in distance that would be caused by the gravitational wave, just as we’ve seen in
Gravitational waves and how they distort space.
The animation is courtesy of Sascha Husa of the Universitat de les Illes Balears.


## Gravitational Waves Discovered: A New Window on the Universe


illustration of Markarian 231, a binary black hole 1.3 billion light years from Earth.
Their collision generated the first gravitational waves we've ever detected.
Image: NASA



Published on Oct 20, 2015

What happens when two black holes collide? This extreme scenario likely occurs in the centers
of some merging galaxies and multiple star systems. The featured video shows a computer animation of the final
stages of such a merger, while highlighting the gravitational lensing effects that would appear on a background starfield.
The black regions indicate the event horizons of the dynamic duo, while a surrounding ring of shifting background stars
indicates the position of their combined Einstein ring. All background stars not only have images visible outside of
this Einstein ring, but also have one or more companion images visible on the inside. Eventually the two black holes coalesce.
The end stages of such a merger may provide a strong and predictable blast of gravitational radiation, a much sought after form of
radiation different than light that has never yet been directly observed.

Source: http://chriszabriskie.com/reappear/
Artist: http://chriszabriskie.com/

When Black Holes Collide
Video Credit & Copyright: Simulating Extreme Spacetimes Collaboration
http://www.black-holes.org/

Category
Science & Technology
Remix this video



## Infographic: What made Gravitional waves?


Nature News, March 23, 2016, doi:10.1038/531428a
Source: Ref. [1]/Nik Spencer/Nature

But the Event also marks the start of a long-promised era of gravitational-wave astronomy. Detailed analysis of the signal
has already yielded insights into the nature of the black holes that merged, and how they formed.
With more events such as these—the LIGO team is analysing several other candidate events captured during the detectors'
four-month run, which ended in January—researchers will be able to classify and understand the origins of black holes,
just as they are doing with stars.


# How do we observe Gravitational Waves?


The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO)facility in Livingston, Louisiana.
The other facility is located in Hanford, Washington.
Image: LIGO


## Interferometric gravitational wave detectors: the set-up


Light is sent into the detector from the (laser) light source LS to the beamsplitter B which,
true to its name, sends half of the light on to the mirror M1 and lets the other half through to the mirror M2.
At M1 and M2, respectively, the light is reflected back to the beam splitter. There, the light arriving from M1 (or M2)
is split again, with half going towards the light detector LD, the other half back in the direction of the light source LS.
We will ignore the latter half and pretend, for the sake of our simplified explanation, that all the light reaching B
from M1 or M2 goes on to the light detector LD.


## Interferometric gravitational wave detectors: Operation


Light starts at the light source to the left. Light that has left the source together, travels together
(so green and red pulses are side by side) until the beam splitter. The beam splitter then sends the green pulses on
their upward journey and lets the red pulses pass on their way towards the mirror on the right.
All the particles that arrive back at the beamsplitter after reflection at M1 or M2. At the beamsplitter,
they are directed towards the light detector at the bottom.
In this setup, the horizontal arm is slightly longer than the vertical arm. Red particles have to cover some extra distance.
That is why they arrive at the detector a bit later, and we get an alternating rhythm: green, red, green, red, with equal distances in between.
This will become important later on.



Here is a diagram, a kind of registration strip, which shows the arrival times for red and green pulses at the light detector
(time is measured in “animation frames”):
The pattern is clear: red and green pulses arrive evenly spaced, one after the other.


## Interferometric gravitational wave detectors: Detection


Next, let’s switch on our standard gravitational wave (exaggerated, passing through the screen towards you, and so on). Here is the result:
We have trained our camera on the beamsplitter (so in our image, the beamsplitter doesn’t move). We ignore any slight changes in distance
between beamsplitter and light source/light detector. Instead, we focus on the mirrors M1 and M2, which change their distance from the beamsplitter
just as we would expect from the earlier animations.



Look at the way the pulses arrive at our light detector: sometimes red and green are almost evenly spaced,
sometimes they close together. That is caused by the gravitational wave. Without the wave, we had strict regularity.


## Epic Gravitational Wave Detection: How Scientists Did It


To spot gravitational waves directly for the first time ever, scientists had to measure a
distance change 1,000 times smaller than the width of a proton.


## This Is What Gravitational Waves Sound Like


Published on Feb 11, 2016

The National Science Foundation (NSF) has announced the detection of gravitational waves by the
Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO), a pair of ground-based observatories in Hanford, Washington,
and Livingston, Louisiana.
Albert Einstein predicted the existence of gravitational waves in his general theory of relativity a century ago,
and scientists have been attempting to detect them for 50 years. Einstein pictured these waves as ripples in the fabric of space-time
produced by massive, accelerating bodies, such as black holes orbiting each other. Scientists are interested in observing and
The LIGO detections represent a much-awaited first step toward opening a whole new branch of astrophysics.
Nearly everything we know about the universe comes from detecting and analyzing light in all its forms across the electromagnetic spectrum
– radio, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays and gamma rays. The study of gravitational waves opens a new window on the universe,
one that scientists expect will provide key information that will complement what we can learn through electromagnetic radiation.
Just as in other areas of astronomy, astronomers need both ground-based and space-based observatories to take full advantage of this new window.
LIGO is sensitive to gravitational waves within the range of 10 to 1,000 cycles per second (10 to 1,000 Hz).
A space-based system would be able to detect waves at much lower frequencies, from 0.0001 to 0.1 Hz, and detect different types of sources

Category
Science & Technology




Published on Feb 11, 2016

After a decades-long quest, The MIT-Caltech collaboration LIGO Laboratories has detected gravitational waves,
opening a new era in our exploration of the universe.
Produced by MIT Video Productions and MIT News Office
Producer/Editor: Bill Lattanzi
Footage courtesy of: Hans Peter Bischof; California Institute of Technology; Jet Propulsion Laboratory; LIGO,
A Passion for Understanding, by Kai Staats; MIT; National Science Foundation; Roger Smith; Virginia Trimble, widow of
Joseph Weber; Wikipedia Commons

Category
Science & Technology



## DID A GAMMA RAY BURST ACCOMPANY LIGO’S GRAVITY WAVE DETECTION?


An artist's impression of a Gamma Ray Burst. Credit: Stanford.edu



Published on Feb 11, 2016
ESA is thrilled to learn that gravitational waves have been detected, and is looking forward to starting
its mission to test technologies that could extend the study of these exotic waves to space. Gravitational waves
are elusive no more: an exciting breakthrough that has been 100 years in the making. In November 1915, Albert Einstein
presented his general theory of relativity, introducing a dramatic change of perspective in the physical understanding
of one of the four fundamental interactions of nature: gravity. This theory describes gravity as the way matter interacts with the flexible
‘spacetime’ it is embedded in. Massive bodies deform spacetime, changing its curvature as they move. When accelerated,
massive bodies produce tiny fluctuations in the fabric of spacetime – gravitational waves – which were first predicted
in a further study published by Einstein in 1918. These minuscule cosmic perturbations have finally been revealed, after almost
a century of theoretical investigations and experimental searches. The discovery was announced today by scientists from the
Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) collaboration. LIGO comprises two gravitational wave detectors in
Livingston, Louisiana and Hanford, Washington, USA, and involves over a thousand scientists from across the world.
The experiment uses laser beams to monitor two perpendicular arms, each extending 4 km, to look for tiny changes in their
length that might be caused by passing gravitational waves. Recently upgraded to become Advanced LIGO, the experiment
obtained this historic result during the first observation run in the new configuration, which collected data between
September 2015 and January 2016. The recorded signal is very strong, and it appears to come from a pair of coalescing
black holes about 1.3 billion light-years away. The two monstrous bodies, with masses equivalent to 36 and 29 times the mass of the Sun,
respectively, merged to form a single, even more gigantic black hole of 62 solar masses, releasing the remaining 3 solar masses
in gravitational waves. Like light, gravitational waves also span a broad spectrum of frequencies, and different astronomical objects
are expected to emit these waves all across the spectrum. Ground-based experiments like LIGO are sensitive to high-frequency waves,
like those coming from coalescing pairs of black holes or neutron stars, with frequencies of 10–1000 Hz.
To detect gravitational waves with lower frequencies, such as those from the merging of supermassive black holes
at the centre of massive galaxies, scientists need to investigate changes in length of much longer arms –
about one million kilometres. This can only be achieved in space, using laser beams to monitor the distance between
three freely falling masses separated by much larger distances than can be achieved on Earth.
Category
Science & Technology


## Gravitational Waves 101: How to Hear the Universe The Good Stuff


Published on Jun 14, 2016
In 2015 scientists working at the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave observatory, or LIGO,
detected gravitational waves for the first time. But how did they do it? What is a gravitational wave?
And why is confirming something that Albert Einstein predicted a hundred years ago one of the greatest
scientific achievements of the past century?

HUGE Thanks to the LIGO team and the National Science Foundation for funding amazing projects like LIGO

The University of Chicago LIGO group is comprised of Daniel Holz, Ben Farr, Hsin-Yu Chen, and Zoheyr Doctor, and they all contributed to the results described in this video.

►Subscribe:
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The Good stuff patreon

Digital street team:

The Good Stuff is a proud member of the PBS Digital Studios family



# THE CRAB NEBULA M-1


Colorful New Portrait Shows Energetic Details Embedded in Supernova Remnant
In the summer of the year 1054 AD, Chinese astronomers saw a new "guest star," that appeared six times brighter than Venus.
So bright in fact, it could be seen during the daytime for several months. Halfway around the world, Native Americans made pictographs
of a crescent moon with the bright star nearby that some think may also have been a record of the supernova.
This "guest star" was forgotten about until 700 years later with the advent of telescopes. Astronomers saw a tentacle-like nebula
in the place of the vanished star and called it the Crab Nebula. Today we know it as the expanding gaseous remnant from a star
that self-detonated as a supernova, briefly shining as brightly as 400 million suns. The explosion took place 6,500 light-years away.
If the blast had instead happened 50 light-years away it would have irradiated Earth, wiping out most life forms.
In the late 1960s astronomers discovered the crushed heart of the doomed star, an ultra-dense neutron star that is a dynamo
of intense magnetic field and radiation energizing the nebula. Astronomers therefore need to study the Crab Nebula
across a broad range of electromagnetic radiation, from X-rays to radio waves. This composite picture from five observatories
captures the complexity of this tortured-looking supernova remnant.
Release ID: STScI-2017-21


## Take equal parts 1) supernova, 2) Hubble Space Telescope, and 3) Herschel infrared observatory. Mix well. What do you get? Purple (and pink) majesty.


This video is based on an article I wrote about this observation. And yeah, you want to go take a look;
the high-res picture is pretty phenomenal.
I love this image of the Crab Nebula, if only because the colors are almost electric.
But also because this has been an intensely scrutinized object; people have dedicated their careers to it,
and lots of astronomers have done at least some work on it. I have too; I did a bit of coding for a Hubble observation years ago


## THE CRAB DUAL PULSARS IN THE CRAB NEBULA


Observation sequences of M1, showing the expansion of shock waves emanating from the Pulsar interacting
with the surrounding nebula.  Charndra X-Rays (left), Hubble Visible light (right).
(Credit: NASA, JPL-Caltech)


### As It Turns Out, We Really Are All Starstuff by JASON MAJOR on MARCH 23, 2015


This is a mosaic image, one of the largest ever taken by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope of the Crab Nebula,
a six-light-year-wide expanding remnant of a star's supernova explosion. Japanese and Chinese astronomers recorded
this violent event nearly 1,000 years ago in 1054, as did, almost certainly, Native Americans.
The orange filaments are the tattered remains of the star and consist mostly of hydrogen. The rapidly spinning neutron star
embedded in the center of the nebula is the dynamo powering the nebula's eerie interior bluish glow.
The blue light comes from electrons whirling at nearly the speed of light around magnetic field lines from the neutron star.
The neutron star, like a lighthouse, ejects twin beams of radiation that appear to pulse 30 times a second due to the neutron star's rotation.
A neutron star is the crushed ultra-dense core of the exploded star.
The Crab Nebula derived its name from its appearance in a drawing made by Irish astronomer Lord Rosse in 1844,
using a 36-inch telescope. When viewed by Hubble, as well as by large ground-based telescopes
such as the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope, the Crab Nebula takes on a more detailed appearance
that yields clues into the spectacular demise of a star, 6,500 light-years away.

The newly composed image was assembled from 24 individual Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 exposures
taken in October 1999, January 2000, and December 2000. The colors in the image indicate the different elements
that were expelled during the explosion. Blue in the filaments in the outer part of the nebula represents neutral oxygen,
green is singly-ionized sulfur, and red indicates doubly-ionized oxygen.

Credit: NASA, ESA, J. Hester and A. Loll (Arizona State University)



Animation of the Crab Nebula,

starting with the shortest wavelengths (x-rays - blue)
and progressing through the visible spectrum (green)

The driving power here obviously looks like an electric motor.


## 'A New Rosetta Stone for Astronomy'


For the first time, astronomers have detected visible light and gravitational waves from the same source,
ushering in a new era in our attempt to understand the cosmos.
The driving power here obviously looks like an electric motor.



Here it is, captured by the European Southern Observatory’s Very Large Telescope in Chile, in the center of the image:
Astronomers made the observation August 17. Three gravitational-wave detectors, two at the Nobel prize–winning
Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) in the United States, and one at the Virgo Interferometer in Italy,
detected the cosmic ripples as they washed over Earth. About two seconds later,
two space telescopes—NASA’s Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and ESA’s International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory—observed
a short burst of gamma rays, the most energetic wave in the electromagnetic spectrum, coming from the same part of the sky.



This artist’s impression video shows how two tiny but very dense neutron stars merge and explode as a kilonova.
Such a very rare event is expected to produce both gravitational waves and a short gamma-ray burst,
both of which were observed on 17 August 2017 by LIGO–Virgo and Fermi/INTEGRAL respectively.
Subsequent detailed observations with many ESO telescopes have confirmed that this object,
seen in the galaxy NGC 4993 about 130 million light-years from the Earth, is indeed a kilonova.
Such objects are the main source of very heavy chemical elements, such as gold and platinum in the Universe.

Credit:
ESO/L. Calçada. Music: Johan B. Monell


# This section for heritage projects

Here is Harvard's digital scan of historical glass plates

And here is Europe's Spectra Heritage project

And here is Sky Archive.org

ANOTHER project is The Uccle Direct Astronomical Archive Centre

# This section for images from space

Searchable database of Astronomical images: Astronomical Image Library

### Recent Transits of VENUS

Here is a picture of the June 8, 2004 Transit of Venus

And here is an animated picture of the venus transit of 06/08/2004

Ansd an animation of the 06/05/2012 Transit of Venus

An Animation

time lapse night at the texas sky party...

### another animation: COMET Lemmon


Animation of Comet 2012 F6 Lemmon as seen from NASA�s STEREO Ahead spacecraft. (Credit: NASA/GSFC; animation created by Robert Kaufman).

An icy interloper was in the sights of a NASA spacecraft this past weekend.

Comet 2012 F6 Lemmon passed through the field of view of NASA?s HI2A camera as seen from its solar observing STEREO Ahead spacecraft.
As seen in the animation above put together by Robert Kaufman, Comet Lemmon is now displaying a fine ion and dust tail as it sweeps back
out of the inner solar system on its 10,750 year plus orbit.


## Asteroid 2013-mz5


Asteroid 2013 MZ5 as seen by the University of Hawaii�s PanSTARR-1 telescope. Credit: PS-1/UH

That pale white dot up there? No. 10,000 in a list of near-Earth objects. This rock, 2013 MZ5,
was discovered June 18. It is 1,000 feet (300 meters) across and will not come anywhere near to
threatening Earth, NASA assures us.

But what else is out there? The agency still hasn�t found every asteroid or comet that could come
by Earth. To be sure, however, it�s really trying. But is there more NASA and other agencies can do
to search? Tell us in the comments.


## News Flash: Asteroid Flying Past Earth Today Has Mini-Moon! by BOB KING on JANUARY 26, 2015


This animation, created from 20 individual radar images, clearly show the rough outline of 2004 BL86 and its newly-discovered moon. >
Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech
Wonderful news! Asteroid 2004 BL86, which passed closest to Earth today at a distance of 750,000 miles (1.2 million km),
has a companion moon. Scientists working with NASA�s 230-foot-wide (70-meter) Deep Space Network antenna at Goldstone,
California, have released the first radar images of the asteroid which show the tiny object in orbit about the main body.


## Comet ISON MAY 8, 2013


Comet ISON viewed by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope.  Hubble made eight exposures over a span
of about 43 minutes on May 8, 2013 showing the comet's movement against the field of fixed stars.
Photo credit: NASA, ESA, and the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA)

On May 8, the Hubble Space Telescope snapped a series of short exposures of Comet ISON.
Cut together, these frames capture ISON as it hurtles into the inner solar system.


### Weird X-Rays: What Happens When Eta Carinae�s Massive Stars Get Close?


Eta Carinae, one of the most massive stars known. Image credit: NASA
While the stars appear unchanging when you take a quick look at the night sky,
there is so much variability out there that astronomers will be busy forever. One prominent example is Eta Carinae,
a star system that erupted in the 19th century for about 20 years, becoming one of the brightest stars you could see in the night sky.
It�s so volatile that it�s a high candidate for a supernova.
by Elizabeth Howell on August 27, 2014


Here is NASA's new Space Image library NASA IMAGES.org

another gallery of space images Nasa's spaceflight gallery

Astronomical Multimedia Cosmos in a Computer

This site for a large list of Astronomy Links

Here is another Another set of Astro Links

This is a great site it's Solarviews.com!!!

This site for monthly Skymaps!!!!!

## The Helix Nebula from the WISE TELESCOPE


The Helix nebula is visible in the center of this image,
surrounded by tracks of asteroids that are much closer to Earth (yellow dots).
Click on the image to see them. The streaks you see are from satellites or cosmic rays.
Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/UCLA


# This section for MARS

Here is NASA's site for real time information From the MARS GLOBAL SURVEYOR

This is NASA's Site for real time SOHO Pictures
The Planet Mars: A History of Observation and Discovery The Explore Mars Site

Here is NASA's Center for Mars Exploration

Another site is The Mars today Global Circulation Model Group

Here is a news site on Mars Daily.com

Here is the European site for It's Mars Express Site

For the U.S. it's the 2001 Mars Odyssey

And for the Japanese Mission The Japanese Nozomi Spacecraft

### The Planetary society

The planetary society's Main Website

here is the website for Lowell's legacy Lowell's Arizona Obsevatory's website

Here are webcams of (courtesey of the Planetary Society) Sundials on Mars on the Mars Rovers

Here is the companion Earth dial project

And another companion site Unmanned Spaceflight center.com

Here is Mars Base.net

I posted my first attempts at Mars webcam photography. It is in the files section, The two photos were taken last Saturday through my Meade LX-90 SCT using a Toucam Pro webcam with no filters.

Just a reminder that on Aug 27, and Sep 2, 3 and 4 (no earlier than 19:30 UT), live images of Mars taken with a video camera connected to Schiaparelli's 8" Merz refractor will be webcast on the Internet. Web cam images of mars

Mars regularly comes within 35 million miles of the earth.See This opposition of Mars is so favorable because it happens to occur only 2 days before Mars reaches perihelion, not because of changes in the planets' orbits.

This site collects images taken by people all around the world Here is . 2003 Mars image viewer (Mars Previewer II

Here is another mars viewer It's Cal Sky

Mars as seen from the Earth:(Computer simulation from NASA)

Looking down on the sun Mars system(Computer simulation from NASA)

Earth as seen from Odyssey(Computer simulation from NASA)

### COMET SIDING SPRING


Published on Oct 13, 2014
Three simulations looking at the historic passage of comet A1 Siding Springs past Mars on Oct 19th, 2014 from different astronomical perspectives.


# This section for Moon and solar system

## Asteroid 2012 DA14


Who knew asteroids could be so beautiful and mesmerizing?
In 2008, a group of astronomers led by Alex Parker did a study of the size distribution of asteroid families
using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Asteroid families often have distinctive optical colors, the team said,
and they were able to offer an improved way to separate out the family members into their colors. This resultant animation
put together just this week by Parker shows the orbital motions of over 100,000 asteroids, with colors illustrating the compositional
diversity and relative sizes of the asteroids.



### Surprise! Fireballs Light up the Radio Sky, Hinting at Unexplored Physics by Shannon Hall on June 2, 2014


A series of All-Sky (fish eye) images showing the plasma trail left by a fireball,
which extends 92 degrees across the northern half of the sky. These images are 5 second snapshots
captured at 37.8 MHz with the LWA1 radio telescope. The bright steady sources (Cygnus A, Cassiopeia A, the galactic plane, etc)
have been removed using image subtraction. Image Credit: Gregory Taylor (University of New Mexico)


Here is Nasa's Near Earth Orbital Center at JPL!!!

HEre is NASA's spaceflight H O M E P A G E

Here is the web page for Earth's Asteroid 2002 aa29 Earth co-orbiter

This site for USGS Realtime Earth Geomagnectic data

And here for Nasa's earth observatory

observiving the International Space Station

This is the main site USGS Geomag Main site

AND here is USGS Geomag links site

Another one is The Minor Planet Center

Looking for meteors????? North American Meteor Network

Another place for asteriods is Minor Planet Observer

Yet another site is The Minor Planet Center!

Here is Harvard's Minor Planet Checker.....

Another site is The NEO Program

Related is NASA's Space weather site

# OUR MOON

CURRENT MOON

### Large map of the near side of the Moon

This site lists out phases of the moon for you! Phases of the moon!

This site for predictions for Lunar rays!!!

View the north pole of the Moon the lunar reconnassiance zoom map of the North lunar pole

## The real Orbits of the solar SYSTEM

This is what the solar system looks like right now!Click here for a
Digital Orrery of the solar system

Yet another Digital orrery!

Click here for a musical and Pictorial look at the universe! It's SOMEWHERE INTIME!!!!!!

This NASA site simulates views of the Solar System JPL'S Solar System Simulator

Another Nasa simulation! Simulate URANAUS

NASA's NASA's COLAB lab

NASA's NASA's OPEN Source lab

Here is NASA's EarthObservatory NASAS' earth observatory main page

## J U P I T E R

### Animation of the triple transit of October 13, 2013


These show the multiple impact marks on Jupiter's clouds left by Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9,
and is what was apparent a few days after the ones in my previous post on the first impacts.
The info on these frames is below.
Jason H. originally shared to Astronomy GIF Animations (Comet GIF's):

Impact marks on Jupiter from Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9
- I made this GIF from frames shot by the Hubble Space Telescope
in different color filters back in 1994.
I converted the frames from FITS format and processed  them a little for this animation.


this site for kid's Exploration of the solar system!

HERE IS Lunar Picture of the day!

CalSKY has all the moon and planet info Cal Sky.com!!!!

The Naval Observatry site has the sun and moon data ,along with times for twilight. It has dates and times for the principal phases of the moon for the years 1700-2035.

Lunar apogee and perigee date and distance, plus dates and times for new and full moon for any year. Requires that javascript be enabled.

This site for Asteroid occultations!!!

Here is a site for To assist for looking for the International Space station

### This section for The June 2004 Transit of Venus

Here is NASA's Website for the transit of Venus: FROM NASA

Click here for information on the first transit of venus since December 6, 1882 The transit of venus, June 8, 2004

A new IPAD app featuring Mercury that has the latest on the mission, pictures, etc.

# S A T U R N

Here is carolyn Porco's talk on the saturn system

## Saturn from Cassini


Saturn and its rings, as seen from above the planet by the Cassini spacecraft.
Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute. Assembled by Gordan Ugarkovic.
So what did NASA do during the US government shutdown? You can�t just turn off
spacecraft that are operating millions of miles away, so missions like the Mars rovers
and the Cassini spacecraft at Saturn continued to send back images to Earth during
the 16 days that most of NASA wasn�t up and running like usual. On October 10, 2013,
as Cassini flew high above the planet�s equatorial plane, the spacecraft�s camera
took 36 images of Saturn, a dozen each using the various red, green, and blue filters
used to create color images. The images were transferred back to Earth and put on the
Cassini raw images page. Gordon Ugarkovic from Croatia, and a member of the image editing
wizards at UnmannedSpaceflight.com, grabbed the raw files, processed them, then assembled
the images into this jaw-dropping mosaic.


### Updated on 12-04-2013


Using data from the Cassini spacecraft, NASA has created the first high-resolution
film of Saturn's mysterious hexagonal-shaped jet stream which covers the planet's North Pole.
The massive storm spans a stunning 20,000 miles and features winds which have been measured at 200 mph.
However, the reason for the odd hexagonal shape of the formation continues to baffle astronomers


### Polar Cyclones on Saturn Form From Smaller Storms


In a paper published in the journal Nature Geoscience (June 15th 2015), atmospheric scientists at MIT have proposed a mechanism
for Saturn’s polar cyclones.
Over time, small, short-lived thunderstorms across the planet are thought to build up angular momentum (or spin) within the atmosphere,
ultimately stirring up a long-lasting vortex at the poles.
Simulations carried out by Morgan O’Neill and colleagues at MIT’s Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences (EAPS)
show that small isolated thunderstorms pull material in Saturn's atmosphere towards the poles, accumulating atmospheric energy which
then generates a much larger, long-lasting polar cyclone.
The research concludes that whether or not a polar cyclone forms depends on the total energy within a planet’s atmosphere,
and the average size of its thunderstorms, relative to the size of the planet. Larger thunderstorms are more likely to ultimately create the north polar cyclone that has been observed by NASA's Cassini spacecraft orbiting Saturn.
" Cassini Image Credit : NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute.﻿


### Small thunderstorms may add up to massive cyclones on Saturn New model may predict cyclone activity on other planets. Jennifer Chu | MIT News Office June 15, 2015


For the last decade, astronomers have observed curious “hotspots” on Saturn’s poles.
In 2008, NASA’s Cassini spacecraft beamed back close-up images of these hotspots, revealing them to be immense cyclones,
each as wide as the Earth. Scientists estimate that Saturn’s cyclones may whip up 300 mph winds, and likely have been churning for years.


Here are some images from The Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) in the canary islands

This Click here for a report on Is there a dark star in our solar system?

### Current TypoGraphic Map of Titan Created by multiple passes over Titan by the cassini mission

>



To create the first global, topographic map of Saturn's moon Titan,
scientists analyzed data from NASA's Cassini spacecraft and a mathematical process called splining.
This method effectively uses smooth curved surfaces to "join" the areas between grids of existing
topography profiles obtained by Cassini's radar instrument. In the upper panel of this graphic, gold colors
show where radar images have been obtained over almost half of Titan's surface.
Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASI/JHUAPL/Cornell/Weizmann


## Titan's Lakes


This colorized mosaic from NASA's Cassini mission shows the most complete view yet of Titan's northern land of lakes and seas.
Saturn's moon Titan is the only world in our solar system other than Earth that has stable liquid on its surface.
The liquid in Titan's lakes and seas is mostly methane and ethane.
CREDIT:NASA/JPL-CAlTECH/ASU/USGS


## Saturn's Moon Iapatus Occults a star!!


Just passing by: an animation of Iapetus briefly blocking a bright star in the constellation Orion.
(NASA/JPL-Caltech/SSI. Assembled by Jason Major.)
It�s a cosmic cover-up! No, don�t put your tinfoil* hats on, this isn�t a conspiracy � it�s just Saturn�s moon Iapetus
drifting in front of the bright star Gamma Orionis (aka Bellatrix) captured on Cassini�s narrow-angle camera on August 10, 2013.

Such an event is called an occultation, a term used in astronomy whenever light from one object is blocked by another
� specifically when something visually larger moves in front of something apparently smaller.
(The word occult means to hide or conceal� nothing mystical implied!)


From NASA It's the cassini Mission webpage

NASA has a website Spaceplace, your place to explore Saturn

# This section for Astronomical articles

Another link to Harvard's astronomical article search engine

Harvard University Harvard University

Abstract indices for astrophyshical papers NASA ABSTARCT Search

Google gets some of its data from: NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC)

# The Huygens Principle (Thumbnail)

The Huygens�Fresnel principle (named after Dutch physicist Christiaan Huygens and French physicist Augustin-Jean Fresnel) is a method of analysis applied to problems of wave propagation both in the far-field limit and in near-field diffraction.
Contents

1 History
2 Mathematical expression of the principle
3 Huygens' principle and quantum electrodynamics
5 References

History
Diffraction of a plane wave at a slit whose width is several times the wavelength
Diffraction of a plane wave when the slit width equals the wavelength

In 1678, Huygens[1] proposed that every point to which a luminous disturbance reaches becomes a source of a spherical wave; the sum of these secondary waves determines the form of the wave at any subsequent time. He assumed that the secondary waves travelled only in the "forward" direction and it is not explained in the theory why this is the case. He was able to provide a qualitative explanation of linear and spherical wave propagation, and to derive the laws of reflection and refraction using this principle, but could not explain the deviations from rectilinear propagation which occur when light encounters edges, apertures and screens, commonly known as diffraction effects.[2]

In 1816, Fresnel[3] showed that Huygens' principle, together with his own principle of interference could explain both the rectilinear propagation of light and also diffraction effects. To obtain agreement with experimental results, he had to include additional arbitrary assumptions about the phase and amplitude of the secondary waves, and also an obliquity factor. These assumptions have no obvious physical foundation but led to predictions which agreed with many experimental observations, including the Arago spot.

Poisson was a member of the French Academy which reviewed Fresnel's work.[4] He used Fresnel's theory to predict that a bright spot will appear in the center of the shadow of a small disc and deduced from this that the theory was incorrect. However, Arago, another member of the committee, performed the experiment and showed that the prediction was correct. (Lisle had actually observed this fifty years earlier.[2]) This was one of the investigations which led to the victory of the wave theory of light over the then predominant corpuscular theory.

The Huygens�Fresnel principle provides a good basis for understanding and predicting the wave propagation of light. However, this article[5] provides an interesting discussion of the limitations of the principle and also of different scientists' views as to whether it is an accurate representation of reality or whether "Huygens' principle actually does give the right answer but for the wrong reasons".

Kirchhoff's diffraction formula provides a rigorous mathematical foundation for diffraction, based on the wave equation. The arbitrary assumptions made by Fresnel to arrive at the Huygens�Fresnel equation emerge automatically from the mathematics in this derivation.[6]

A simple example of the operation of the principle can be seen when two rooms are connected by an open doorway and a sound is produced in a remote corner of one of them. A person in the other room will hear the sound as if it originated at the doorway. As far as the second room is concerned, the vibrating air in the doorway is the source of the sound.
Mathematical expression of the principle
Geometric arrangement for Fresnel's calculation

Consider the case of a point source located at a point P0, vibrating at a frequency f. The disturbance may be described by a complex variable U0 known as the complex amplitude. It produces a spherical wave with wavelength ?, wavenumber k = 2p/?. The complex amplitude of the primary wave at the point Q located at a distance r0 from P0 is given by

U(r_0) = \frac {U_0 e^{ikr_0}}{r_0}

since the magnitude decreases in inverse proportion to the distance travelled, and the phase changes as k times the distance travelled.

Using Huygens' theory and the principle of superposition of waves, the complex amplitude at a further point P is found by summing the contributions from each point on the sphere of radius r0. In order to get agreement with experimental results, Fresnel found that the individual contributions from the secondary waves on the sphere had to be multiplied by a constant, i/?, and by an additional inclination factor, K(?). The first assumption means that the secondary waves oscillate at a quarter of a cycle out of phase with respect to the primary wave, and that the magnitude of the secondary waves are in a ratio of 1:? to the primary wave. He also assumed that K(?) had a maximum value when ? = 0, and was equal to zero when ? = p/2. The complex amplitude at P is then given by:

U(P) = \frac {iU(r_0)}{\lambda} \int_{S} \frac {e^{iks}}{s} K(\chi)\,dS

where S describes the surface of the sphere, and s is the distance between Q and P.

Fresnel used a zone construction method to find approximate values of K for the different zones,[4] which enabled him to make predictions which were in agreement with experimental results.

The various assumptions made by Fresnel emerge automatically in Kirchhoff's diffraction formula,[4] to which the Huygens�Fresnel principle can be considered to be an approximation. Kirchoff gave the following expression for K(?):

~K(\chi )= - \frac{i}{2 \lambda}(1+\cos \chi)

This incorporates the quarter cycle phase shift and the reduced magnitude; K has a maximum value at ? = 0 as in the Huygens�Fresnel principle; however, K is not equal to zero at ? = p/2.
Huygens' principle and quantum electrodynamics

Huygens' principle can be seen as a consequence of the isotropy of space - all directions in space are equal. Any disturbance created in a sufficiently small region of isotropic space (or in an isotropic medium) propagates from that region in all radial directions. The waves created by this disturbance, in turn, create disturbances in other regions, and so on. The superposition of all the waves results in the observed pattern of wave propagation.

Isotropy of space is fundamental to quantum electrodynamics (QED) where the wave function of any object propagates along all available unobstructed paths. When integrated along all possible paths, with a phase factor which is proportional to the path length, the interference of the wave-functions correctly predicts observable phenomena.


# This section for STELLAR INFORMATION

This is the

And here for Centauri DREAMS

Stellar Evolution; binary stars; eclipsing binaries JAVA DEMOS

Starlab Demonstration: N-bodySimulations

Here is the Main Astrodigital site

Generate a Starmap for a time and place of your choosing: STARMAP

You can generate a better sky map here The Online Planetarium!

## Caught for the First Time: The Early Flash of an Exploding Star


Published on Mar 21, 2016
The brilliant flash of an exploding star’s shockwave—what astronomers call the “shock breakout” --
is illustrated in this cartoon animation. The animation begins with a view of a red supergiant star that
is 500 times bigger and 20,000 brighter than our sun. When the star’s internal furnace can no longer sustain
nuclear fusion its core to collapses under gravity. A shockwave from the implosion rushes upward through the star’s layers.
The shockwave initially breaks through the star’s visible surface as a series of finger-like plasma jets.
Only 20 minute later the full fury of the shockwave reaches the surface and the doomed star blasts apart as a supernova explosion.
This animation is based on photometric observations made by NASA’s Kepler space telescope.
By closely monitoring the star KSN 2011d, located 1.2 billion light-years away, Kepler caught the onset
of the early flash and subsequent explosion.
Credit: NASA Ames, STScI/G. Bacon
Category
Science & Technology


## Did Supernova Explosion Contribute to Earth Mass Extinction? By Mike Wall, Space.com Senior Writer | July 11, 2016 09:01am ET


Artist's illustration of the supernova remnant known as 1993J, which came from a double-star system.
Credit: NASA, ESA, G. Bacon (STScI)
A faraway supernova explosion may have contributed to a minor mass extinction here
on Earth 2.59 million years ago, a new study suggests.
Fast-moving, charged particles called cosmic rays that were blasted out by asupernova may have played
a role in the climatic changes that apparently led to a die-off at the end of the Pliocene epoch
and the start of the Pleistocene, researchers said.


# This section for General Research

## THe latest on Supernova 1987a


Astronomers have spotted a new object emerging from the ashes of a recently deceased star.
The stellar post-mortem, which is recounted in two new videos, may also solve a mystery surrounding the unexpected shape
of the star's explosive remains, scientists say.



In the second supernova video, the ICRAR scientists show how they may have also solved a long-standing mystery about the
shock wave that is still expanding away from the supernova remnant.
Scientists have observed that one side of the supernova explosion appears brighter than the other.
To figure out why, researchers at ICRAR developed a 3D simulation of the stellar death. They found that
tweaking things in the simulation, like the asymmetry of the explosion and the composition of the gas surrounding the supernova,
changed the outcome and eventually created models that agree with the new observations.


## NASA | Colliding Neutron Stars Create Black Hole and Gamma-ray Burst


Armed with state-of-the-art supercomputer models, scientists have shown that colliding neutron stars
can produce the energetic jet required for a gamma-ray burst. Earlier simulations demonstrated that mergers
could make black holes. Others had shown that the high-speed particle jets needed to make a gamma-ray burst would
continue if placed in the swirling wreckage of a recent merger.

Now, the simulations reveal the middle step of the process--how the merging stars' magnetic field organizes itself
into outwardly directed components capable of forming a jet. The Damiana supercomputer at Germany's Max Planck Institute
for Gravitational Physics needed six weeks to reveal the details of a process that unfolds in just 35 thousandths of a second--
less than the blink of an eye.

Like our videos? Subscribe to NASA's Goddard Shorts HD podcast:
http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/vis/iTunes/f...

Or find NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on facebook

Category
Science & Technology


Find transits of Of the International Space Station

A neat website for Information on the night sky

Another page for Deep sky information

Web page for Space sounds!

Here are infra red images of space Caltech's 2mass gallaery

Here is Caltech's sky survey

A neat mashup To track satellites

Here is a webpage with a real use: It' Online conversion of numerous units to othe units usefull in astro research

Optical definitions Everything you ever wanted to know about optics terminology.

This is a the site for the San diego Supercomputer research center

And here for Volume visulation of the ORion Nebula

And here for The globe at night

This site for a new look at the Universe New information on the electrical nature of the Universe

Another site for heavenly mapping It's Heavenly view.com

A site for Skymaps it's skymaps.com

Another site for Heavenly information

This Site for the messier objects

### This section for GPS information

And here for This is the positioning system specification

Here's an interesting website that offers some insights into GPS accuracy:

Here are the web pages for University of British Columbia

Here is US Navy Oservotory Data site

Here is the website for the 100th Annivesery of the THEORY of Relativity

## Comet Sub section

On this sub page you can search for comets! Click here for comet search!

Comet Chasing? Check out the sky hound

The Astroleague has COmet page

## Video of observing in southwest US!

A timelapse medley of sun, storms, and stars over three distinct rock locations in the Southwestern United States.
Footage from Monument Valley, AZ / Trona Pinnacles, CA / Red Rock Canyon, CA.

Shot by Gavin Heffernan (www.SunchaserPictures.com) and Harun Mehmedinovic (www.Bloodhoney.com) for BBC Earth.
Part of www.SKYGLOWPROJECT.COM - our initiative to protect the night skies and raise awareness of the light pollution.

** The glowing fireball resembling a meteor at 2:02 was actually a giant "honey moon". Trailing effect used by tracking the rotation of the earth's axis over several hours

** Some shots were used this summer for The Rolling Stones ZIP CODE tour:
http://www.sunchaserpictures.com/#!concerts/c24vq and http://bit.ly/1KHsNBG

Music: "Apollo Rising" by Terry Devine-King
Edited by: Gavin Heffernan

# Planetary Formation, Science, Solar System

## OUR SUN MAY HAVE EATEN A SUPER EARTH FOR BREAKFAST


A new paper says that a Super-Earth may have formed in our Solar System and been swallowed by the Sun.
Image Credit: ESA/Hubble, M. Kornmesser


## Formation of Planets in a Protoplanetary Disk


Published on May 17, 2013
The artist conception shows a newly formed star surrounded by a swirling protoplanetary disk of dust and gas.
Debris coalesces to create rocky 'planetesimals' that collide and grow to eventually form planets.
The results of this study show that small planets form around stars with a wide range of heavy element
content suggesting that their existence might be widespread in the galaxy.
Credit: University of Copenhagen/Lars Buchhave
Category
Science & Technology


## To get an idea of Gaia’s long-term promise, recall that we are looking at the galaxy with Hubble-like precision. We may have more than a billion stars in today’s release, but 400 million of these are appearing in a catalog for the first time.


Image: An all-sky view of stars in our Galaxy – the Milky Way – and neighbouring galaxies,
based on the first year of observations from ESA’s Gaia satellite, from July 2014 to September 2015.
This map shows the density of stars observed by Gaia in each portion of the sky. Brighter regions indicate denser concentrations of stars,
while darker regions correspond to patches of the sky where fewer stars are observed.
The Milky Way is a spiral galaxy, with most of its stars residing in a disc about 100 000 light-years
across and about 1000 light-years thick. This structure is visible in the sky as the Galactic Plane –
the brightest portion of this image –which runs horizontally and is especially bright at the centre.
Darker regions across the Galactic Plane correspond to dense clouds of interstellar gas and dust that absorb starlight
along the line of sight. Many globular and open clusters – groupings of stars held together by their mutual gravity –
are also sprinkled across the image. Credit: ESA.


# Information on Lagrange points

## WHAT ARE THE LAGRANGE POINTS?

### Published on Aug 26, 2016 There are places in the Solar System where the forces of gravity balance out perfectly. Places we can use to position satellites, space telescopes and even colonies to establish our exploration of the Solar System. These are the Lagrange Points. Support us at: More stories at: Follow us on Twitter: @universetoday Follow us on Tumblr: Like us on Facebook: Google+ - Instagram - Team: Fraser Cain - @fcain Jason Harmer - @jasoncharmer Chad Weber - weber.chad@gmail.com Created by: Fraser Cain and Jason Harmer Edited by: Chad Weber Music: Left Spine Down - “X-Ray 


The five Sun-Earth Lagrange points. Credit: NOAA



Sun-Earth Lagrange Points. Credit: Xander89/Wikimedia Commons



Animation showing the relationship between the Lagrangian points (red) of a planet (blue)
orbiting a star (yellow), and the gravitational potential in the plane containing the orbit (grey surface with purple contours of equal potential).
Credit: cmglee (CC-SA 3.0)