This Page on the Frontier Fields Initiative Was Last updated on December 09, 2018

Comments?????
Email the Webmaster!!!!!



Locations of Site Visitors


PAGE Table of Contents



Introduction to the Frontier Fields Initiative!!!

The Coming James webb telescope it's coming maybe in 2020???????




Stars of Cosmology and Science

Albert Einstein

Nikola Tesla

Stephen Hawking


Capturing the birth of the universe: Model simulates the 'cosmic soup' of particles that appeared seconds after the Big Bang

By ABIGAIL BEALL FOR MAILONLINE

Read more:
Follow us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook

How the universe began is a complex question involving study by vastly different branches of physics including particle physics,
nuclear physics and cosmology. A team in the US has brought together all of these disciplines to create a computer model simulating
the first few minutes after the Big Bang
A few seconds after the Big Bang, the universe was made of a thick, 10-billion degree 'cosmic soup' of subatomic particles.
Read more: Follow us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook

INFO GRAPHIC: THE BIG BANG THEORY

HERE’S STEPHEN HAWKING’S FINAL THEORY ABOUT THE BIG BANG


In honor of Dr. Stephen Hawking, the COSMOS center will be creating the most detailed 3D mapping effort of the Universe to date. Credit: BBC, Illus.: T.Reyes

Stephen Hawking’s final theory on the Big Bang, submitted shortly before he passed away, was recently published. Credit: University of Cambridge

What Is The Evidence For The Big Bang?

Almost all astronomers agree on the theory of the Big Bang, that the entire Universe is spreading apart,
with distant galaxies speeding away from us in all directions.
Run the clock backwards to 13.8 billion years ago, and everything in the Cosmos started out as a single point in space.
In an instant, everything expanded outward from that location, forming the energy,
atoms and eventually the stars and galaxies we see today.
But to call this concept merely a theory is to misjudge the overwhelming amount of evidence.
There are separate lines of evidence, each of which independently points towards this as the origin story for our Universe.
The first came with the amazing discovery that almost all galaxies are moving away from us.
In 1912, Vesto Slipher calculated the speed and direction of "spiral nebulae" by measuring
the change in the wavelengths of light coming from them. He realized that most of them were moving away from us.
We now know these objects are galaxies, but a century ago astronomers thought these vast collections
of stars might actually be within the Milky Way.
In 1924, Edwin Hubble figured out that these galaxies are actually outside the Milky Way.
He observed a special type of variable star that has a direct relationship between its energy output and the time it takes to pulse in brightness.
By finding these variable stars in other galaxies, he was able to calculate how far away they were.
Hubble discovered that all these galaxies are outside our own Milky Way, millions of light-years away.
So, if these galaxies are far, far away, and moving quickly away from us,
 this suggests that the entire Universe must have been located in a single point billions of years ago.
The second line of evidence came from the abundance of elements we see around us.
In the earliest moments after the Big Bang, there was nothing more than hydrogen compressed into a tiny volume,
with crazy high heat and pressure.
The entire Universe was acting like the core of a star, fusing hydrogen into helium and other elements.
This is known as Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. As astronomers look out into the Universe
and measure the ratios of hydrogen, helium and other trace elements,
 they exactly match what you would expect to find if the entire Universe was once a really big star.
Line of evidence number 3: cosmic microwave background radiation.
In the 1960s, Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson were experimenting with a 6-meter radio telescope,
and discovered a background radio emission that was coming from every direction in the sky - day or night.
 From what they could tell, the entire sky measured a few degrees above absolute zero.
Theories predicted that after a Big Bang, there would have been a tremendous release of radiation.
And now, billions of years later, this radiation would be moving so fast away from us that the wavelength
of this radiation would have been shifted from visible light to the microwave background radiation we see today.
The final line of evidence is the formation of galaxies and the large scale structure of the cosmos.
About 10,000 years after the Big Bang, the Universe cooled to the point that the gravitational attraction
of matter was the dominant form of energy density in the Universe.
This mass was able to collect together into the first stars, galaxies and eventually
 the large scale structures we see across the Universe today.
These are known as the 4 pillars of the Big Bang Theory.
Four independent lines of evidence that build up one of the most influential
 and well-supported theories in all of cosmology.
But there are more lines of evidence.
There are fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background radiation, we don't see any stars older than 13.8 billion years,
the discoveries of dark matter and dark energy, along with how the light curves from distant supernovae.
So, even though it's a theory, we should regard it the same way that we regard gravity, evolution and general relativity.
We have a pretty good idea of what's going on, and we've come up with a good way to understand and explain it.
As time progresses we'll come up with more inventive experiments to throw at. We'll refine our understanding
and the theory that goes along with it.
Most importantly, we can have confidence when talking about what we know about the
early stages of our magnificent Universe and why we understand it to be true.
 

This illustration shows the evolution of the Universe, from the Big Bang on the left, to modern times on the right. Image: NASA

Artist’s impression of merging binary black holes. Credit: LIGO/A. Simonnet.

The Frontier Fields concept of the Milky Way

Our galaxy (pictured) is 13.2 billion years old - less than a billion years younger than the universe itself.
A few seconds after the Big Bang, 14 billion years ago, the universe was made of a thick, 10-billion degree 'cosmic soup' of subatomic particles
Read more: Follow us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook

WHAT IS THE CLOSEST GALAXY TO THE MILKY WAY?

Image showing nearly 50,000 galaxies in the nearby universe detected by the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) in infrared light. Credit: 2MASS/ T. H. Jarrett/J. Carpenter/R. Hurt

Illustration of the Canis Dwarf Galaxy and its associated tidal (shown in red) in relation to our Milky Way. Credit: R. Ibata (Strasbourg Observatory, ULP) et al./2MASS/NASA

Images of a few examples of merging galaxies taken by the Hubble Space Telescope. Credit: NASA/ESA/STScI/A. Evans/NRAO/Caltech

An artist depicts the incredibly powerful flare that erupted from the red dwarf star EV Lacertae. Credit: Casey Reed/NASA


The Frontier Fields Main Page!!

The Main page For the Frontier Fields Initiative!!

The International Astronomical Union!!

The Main page For The International Astronomical Union

A new site from Cornell university Numerical simulation of Black Holes!


Black Hole Infographic

Black Holes Explained – From Birth to Death

Gravity at the Macro Level
Black Holes Explained – From Birth to Death

Merging Black Holes
Found on popsugar.com This Black Hole GIF Is Utterly Mesmerizing by Lisette Mejia

Gravity at the Sub Atomic Level
Theorotical dwscription of Gravity at he Planck Level(10 exp -33 meters)

Fascinating animated image representing the idea of coiled spatial dimensions
predicted by super-string theory. Tiny spatial dimensions at every point in 3-space (3D-space depicted by the grid)
would be coiled in a "Calabi-Yau" manifold. Dimensions inside the manifolds could be connected across 3D space,
though spatially separate in the sense that we are familiar with.


Infographics

Hubble Images

THe Hubble Deep Field Video

Uploaded on Dec 7, 2006
This is the latest incarnation of the HDF video. The narration has been edited to include research from a paper
in Physical Review Letters (2004) which puts the size of the universe at 46.5 billion light years, not 78 billion as I originally stated.
In the video narration, I round that value up to 47 billion light years. I also took out Numa Numa guy.
Music
"Shine On You Crazy Diamond (Parts 1 - 5) [Edit] (2011 - Remaster)" by Pink Floyd (AmazonMP3)
Artist
Pink Floyd
Category
Science & Technology
License
Standard YouTube License

Hubble Sees the 'Teenage Years' of Quasars

Space Fan Hangout #4: CLASH Finds the Most Distant Galaxy


Click here to return to top of page


Cluster ABEL2256

�Color� radio image of galactic cluster Abell 2256. Credit: Owen et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF.
Even though it�s said that the average human eye can discern from seven to ten million different values
and hues of colors, in reality our eyes are sensitive to only a very small section of the entire electromagnetic spectrum, diverse segments of the EM spectrum, from minuscule yet powerful gamma rays to incredibly long, low-frequency radio waves.


Click here to return to top of page


The Hubble Deep Field Abell 2744 Cluster

Galaxy cluster Abell 2744, with multiple images of individual galaxies marked.
These multiple images are produced by the cluster�s gravitational lens.

The Hubble Deep Field Abel 2744 Cluster(un marked also known as Pandoras Box)

Peering deep into the early universe, this picturesque parallel field observation from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope
reveals thousands of colorful galaxies swimming in the inky blackness of space. A few foreground stars from our own galaxy,
the Milky Way, are also visible. In October 2013 Hubble’s Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) and Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) began observing this portion of sky
as part of the Frontier Fields program. This spectacular skyscape was captured during the study of the giant galaxy cluster Abell 2744,
otherwise known as Pandora’s Box. While one of Hubble’s cameras concentrated on Abell 2744, the other camera viewed this
adjacent patch of sky near to the cluster. Containing countless galaxies of various ages, shapes and sizes, this parallel field observation is nearly as deep
as the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field. In addition to showcasing the stunning beauty of the deep universe in incredible detail,
this parallel field — when compared to other deep fields — will help astronomers understand how similar the universe looks in different directions.
Image credit: NASA, ESA and the HST Frontier Fields team (STScI), Acknowledgement: Judy Schmidt Text credit: European Space Agency Last Updated: March 11, 2016 Editor: Ashley Morrow

Frontier Fields Cluster Abell 2744 Interactive Viewer


Click here to return to top of page


Hubble Deep Field Abel 1689 Cluster

Dark matter in the massive galaxy cluster Abell 1689, located 2.2 billion light-years away. The cluster contains about 1,000 galaxies
and trillions of stars. Hubble cannot see the dark matter directly. Astronomers inferred its location by analyzing the effect of gravitational lensing,
where light from galaxies behind Abell 1689 is distorted by intervening matter within the cluster. Credit: NASA, ESA, and Z. Levay (STScI)

Dark Matter in the Hubble Deep Field Abel 1689 Cluster

This Hubble image shows the distribution of dark matter in the center of the giant galaxy cluster Abell 1689,
containing about 1,000 galaxies and trillions of stars. Researchers used the observed positions of
135 lensed images of 42 background galaxies to calculate the location and amount of dark matter in the cluster.
They superimposed a map of these inferred dark matter concentrations, tinted blue, on an image of the cluster.
The greastest concentration of dark matter is in the cluster’s center.
Credit: NASA, ESA, D. Coe, N. Benitez , T. Broadhurst

Radio Telescope reveals hundreds of Hidden galaxies behind the Milky Way GAlaxy

Illustration of the depth by which Hubble imaged galaxies in prior Deep Field initiatives, in units of the Age of the Universe. Credit: NASA and A. Feild (STScI)

NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope captured this stunning infrared image of the center of the Milky Way Galaxy, where the black hole Sagitarrius A resides. Image: NASA/JPL-Caltech “We have used light of about 1 mm wavelength, which can be observed by mm telescopes like SPT, APEX or ALMA. At this wavelength the photons are produced by the thermal radiation of dust. The beauty of using this long wavelength is, that for a large redshift range (look back time), the dimming of galaxies [caused] by increasing distance is compensated by the redshift – so the observed intensity is independent of the redshift. This is because, for higher redshift galaxies, one is looking at intrinsically shorter wavelengths (by (1+z)) where the radiation is stronger for a thermal spectrum like the dust spectrum.”

The Hubble Ultra Deep Field seen in ultraviolet, visible, and infrared light. Image Credit: NASA, ESA, H. Teplitz and M. Rafelski (IPAC/Caltech), A. Koekemoer (STScI), R. Windhorst (Arizona State University), and Z. Levay (STScI)


Click here to return to top of page


An explosive quartet
Hubble sees multiple images of a supernova for the very first time 5 March 2015

Hubble sees multiple images of a supernova for the very first time! Galaxy cluster MACS j1149.5+223 and a supernova four times over An explosive quartet!: This image shows the huge galaxy cluster MACS J1149+2223,
whose light took over 5 billion years to reach us. The huge mass of the cluster and one of the galaxies within
it is bending the light from a supernova behind them and creating four separate images of it.
The light has been magnified and distorted due to gravitational lensing and as a result the images are arranged around
the elliptical galaxy in a formation known as an Einstein cross. A close-up of the Einstein cross is shown in the inset.


Click here to return to top of page


Cluster MACJ0717

Disco lights from a galaxy cluster seen with multi-spectral eyes

MACS J0717 is one of the most complex galaxy clusters known, the result of four galaxy clusters colliding.
It is located about 5.4 billion light-years away from Earth, in the constellation of Auriga (The Charioteer).
Image credit: NASA, ESA, CXC, NRAO/AUI/NSF, STScI, and R. van Weeren (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics).
Acknowledgment: NASA, ESA, and J. Lotz (STScI), and the HFF team.


Click here to return to top of page


Cluster MACJ0416

Hubble Looks Into a Cosmic Kaleidoscope

At first glance, this cosmic kaleidoscope of purple, blue and pink offers a strikingly beautiful —
and serene — snapshot of the cosmos. However, this multi-colored haze actually marks the site of two colliding galaxy clusters,
forming a single object known as MACS J0416.1-2403 (or MACS J0416 for short).
MACS J0416 is located about 4.3 billion light-years from Earth, in the constellation of Eridanus.
This image of the cluster combines data from three different telescopes: the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope
(showing the galaxies and stars), the NASA Chandra X-ray Observatory (diffuse emission in blue),
and the NRAO Jansky Very Large Array (diffuse emission in pink). Each telescope shows a different element of the cluster,
allowing astronomers to study MACS J0416 in detail.

Caption: Multiply lensed galaxies are marked in this image of MACS J0416.1-2403.
The brown lines create a contour map of mass concentrations according to the best-fit strong lensing model.
Multiple images of the same galaxy are indicated by the same number to the left of the decimal point.
The digit to the right of the decimal counts off the number of multiples. The most secure candidates are shown in blue;
the less secure are portrayed in magenta.

Distibution of Dark Matter In MACSJ0416

An image of the distribution of dark matter in MACSJ0416.


Click here to return to top of page


The ABELL 370 Cluster

The massive galaxy cluster Abell 370 as seen by Hubble Space Telescope in the final Frontier Fields observations.

The locations of Hubble’s observations of the Abell 370 galaxy cluster (right) and the adjacent parallel field (left) are plotted over a Digitized Sky Survey (DSS) image. The blue boxes outline the regions of Hubble’s visible-light observations, and the red boxes indicate areas of Hubble’s infrared-light observations. A scale bar in the lower left corner of the image indicates the size of the image on the sky. The scale bar corresponds to about 1/30th the apparent width of the full moon as seen from Earth. Astronomers refer to this unit of measurement as one arcminute, denoted as 1′.

The “parallel field” shows a wide assortment of galaxies stretching back through time and space.

Location of the Abell 370 galaxy cluster field and its parallel field in the constellation Cetus. Credit—Frontier Field location: STScI; Enlarged constellation map: International Astronomical Union (IAU)


Click here to return to top of page


Astronomers Set a New Galaxy Distance Record

Image: Distant Galaxy EGS-zs8-1 in CANDELS Field This is a Hubble Space Telescope image of the farthest spectroscopically confirmed galaxy observed to date (May 5, 2015).
It was identified in this Hubble image of a field of galaxies in the CANDELS survey (Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey).
NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope also observed the unique galaxy. The W. M. Keck Observatory was used to obtain a spectroscopic redshift (z=7.7),
extending the previous redshift record


Click here to return to top of page


Astronomers Discover First Mulitiple-image Gravitationally-lensed Supernova

The four dots centered on the bright elliptical galaxy at top are multiple images of supernova SN Refsdal
taken with the Hubble Space Telescope between November 10-20, 2014. In the bottom image, the galaxy has been digitally removed
to show only the supernova images, labeled S1 through S4. The line segments are diffraction spikes from a nearby star.
Credit: P.L. Kelly/GLASS/Hubble Frontier Fields
How about four supernovae for the price of one? Using the Hubble Space Telescope,
Dr. Patrick Kelly of the University of California-Berkeley along with the GLASS
(Grism Lens Amplified Survey from Space) and Hubble Frontier Fields teams, discovered a remote supernova lensed
into four copies of itself by the powerful gravity of a foreground galaxy cluster. Dubbed SN Refsdal, the object was discovered in the rich galaxy cluster MACS J1149.6+2223 five billion light years from Earth in the constellation Leo.

HAVE WE REALLY JUST SEEN THE BIRTH OF A BLACK HOLE?(As a result of a Supernova?)

Artist's drawing a black hole (Cygnus X-1) as it pulls matter from a blue star beside it.
Credits: NASA/CXC/M.Weiss

Artist’s impression of the star in its multi-million year long and previously unobservable phase as a large, red supergiant.
Credit: CAASTRO / Mats Björklund (Magipics)

GRAVITATIONAL WAVES WILL LET US SEE INSIDE STARS AS SUPERNOVAE HAPPEN

Watch Monash astrophysicists and LIGO Scientific Collaborators Dr Eric Thrane and Dr Paul Lasky describe the incredible event which took place about 1.4 billion years ago, generating the first ever gravitational wave to be detected on 14 September 2015 by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors in the USA. They describe the moment of realisation that this was a real gravitational wave, the significance of the detection and how it could unlock the secrets of the universe.

Artistic representation of the material around the supernova 1987A.
Credit: ESO/L.

The Large Binocular Telescope, showing the two imaging mirrors. Credit: NASA

Future missions, like the James Webb Space Telescope,
will be able to observe possible failed supernovae/blackholes to confirm their existence.
Credit: NASA/JPL

SUPERNOVA BLAST WAVE STILL VISIBLE AFTER 30 YEARS

To celebrate 30 years since Supernova 1987A was spotted, a new composite image shows the most recent images of the object, and contains X-rays from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory (blue), visible light data from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (green), and submillimeter wavelength data from the international Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) telescope in Chile (red).

This new image of the supernova remnant SN 1987A was taken by the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope in January 2017 using its Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3). Credit: NASA, ESA, and R. Kirshner (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation) and P. Challis (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics)

Published on Feb 24, 2017 This time-lapse video sequence of Hubble Space Telescope images reveals dramatic changes in a ring of material around the exploded star Supernova 1987A. The images, taken from 1994 to 2016, show the effects of a shock wave from the supernova blast smashing into the ring. The ring begins to brighten as the shock wave hits it. The ring is about one light-year across. Discovered in 1987, Supernova 1987A is the closest observed supernova to Earth since 1604. The exploded star resides 163,000 light-years away in the Large Magellanic Cloud, a satellite galaxy of our Milky Way. Credit: NASA, ESA, and R. Kirshner (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation), and P. Challis (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics) Read more: Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License

This scientific visualization, using data from a computer simulation, shows Supernova 1987A, as the luminous ring of material we see today. Credits: NASA, ESA, and F. Summers and G. Bacon (STScI); Simulation Credit: S. Orlando (INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo)

This montage shows the evolution of the supernova SN 1987A between 1994 and 2016, as seen by the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. Credit: NASA, ESA, and R. Kirshner (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation) and P. Challis (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics)

A Quick Look at Supernova 1987A

Published on Feb 24, 2017 On February 24, 1987, astronomers in the southern hemisphere saw a supernova in the Large Magellanic Cloud. This new object was dubbed “Supernova 1987A” and was the brightest stellar explosion seen in over four centuries. Chandra has observed Supernova 1987A many times and the X-ray data reveal important information about this object. X-rays from Chandra have shown the expanding blast wave from the original explosion slamming into a ring of material expelled by the star before it exploded. The latest Chandra data reveal the blast wave has moved beyond the ring into a region that astronomers do not know much about. These observations can help astronomers learn how supernovas impact their environments and affect future generations of stars and planets. Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License


Click here to return to top of page


LARGE SCALE SIMULATION OF THE UNIVERSE

This very detailed simulation of large scale structure was created as part of the Illustris simulation.
The distribution of dark matter is shown in blue and the gas distribution in orange.
This simulation is for the current state of the Universe and is centered on a massive galaxy cluster.
The region shown is about 300 million light-years across.

IllustrisTNG is a new simulation model for the Universe. It used over 24,000 processors over the course of more than two months to produce the largest hydrodynamic simulation project to date for the emergence of cosmic structures. Image: IllustrisTNG

The Hazel Hen Supercomputer is based on Intel processors and Cray network technologies. Image: IllustrisTNG

This is a rendering of gas velocity in a massive galaxy cluster in IllustrisTNG. Black areas are hardly moving, and white areas are moving at greater than 1000km/second. The black areas are calm cosmic filaments, the white areas are near super-massive black holes (SMBHs). The SMBHs are blowing away the gas and preventing star formation. Image: IllustrisTNG

A composite image from IllustrisTNG. Panels on the left show galaxy-galaxy interactions and the fine-grained structure of extended stellar halos. Panels on the right show stellar light projections from two massive central galaxies at the present day. It’s easy to see how the light from massive central galaxies overwhelms the light from stellar halos. Image: IllustrisTNG

TNG 50, TNG 100, and TNG 300. Image: IllustrisTNG


The Illustris project Home page


From the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

This is a map of the observable Universe from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Orange areas show higher density of galaxy clusters and filaments. Image: Sloan Digital Sky Survey.

New Simulation Models Galaxies Like Never Before
by VANESSA JANEK on JANUARY 5, 2015

Zooming into an EAGLE galaxy. Credit: EAGLE Project Consortium/Schaye et al.
Astronomy is, by definition, intangible. Traditional laboratory-style experiments that utilize variables and control groups
are of little use to the scientists who spend their careers analyzing the intricacies our Universe.
Instead, astronomers rely on simulations � robust, mathematically-driven facsimiles of the cosmos �
to investigate the long-term evolution of objects like stars, black holes, and galaxies

How We�ve �Morphed� From �Starry Night� to Planck�s View of the BICEP2 Field
by Tim Reyes on February 2, 2015

Vincent Van Gogh�s Starry Night is a finished work of art known to billions.
After 13.8 billion years, the Universe remains an unfinished work.
Planck Observatory data revealing the Milky Way�s magnetic field is morphed into a Starry Night of June 1889.
(Credits: Vincent Van Gogh, ESA, Illustration � J.Schmidt, T.Reyes)
From the vantage point of a window in an insane asylum, Vincent van Gogh painted one of the most noted and valued artistic works in human history.
It was the summer of 1889. With his post-impressionist paint strokes, Starry Night depicts a night sky before sunrise that undulates,
flows and is never settled. Scientific discoveries are revealing a Cosmos with such characteristics.

THESE 25 BILLION GALAXIES ARE DEFINITELY LIVING IN A SIMULATION

A section of the virtual universe, a billion light years across, showing how dark matter is distributed in space, with dark matter halos the yellow clumps, interconnected by dark filaments. Cosmic void, shown as the white areas, are the lowest density regions in the Universe. Credit: Joachim Stadel, UZH

How Do We Know Dark Matter Exists?

Published on Mar 12, 2015 Dark matter can't be seen or detected by any of our instruments, so how do we know it really exists? More stories at: Follow us on Twitter: @universetoday Follow us on Tumblr: Like us on Facebook: Google+ - Instagram - Team: Fraser Cain - @fcain Jason Harmer - @jasoncharmer Susie Murph - @susiemmurph Brian Koberlein - @briankoberlein Chad Weber - weber.chad@gmail.com Kevin Gill - @kevinmgill Created by: Fraser Cain and Jason Harmer Edited by: Chad Weber Music: Left Spine Down - “X-Ray” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KzWwJ...

Artist impression of the Euclid probe, which is set to launch in 2020. Credit: ESA

Diagram showing the Lambda-CBR universe, from the Big Bang to the the current era. Credit: Alex Mittelmann/Coldcreation

The universe has been expanding since the Big Bang kickstarted the growth about 13.8 billion years ago.
And it is said to be getting faster in its acceleration as it gets bigger (illustrated).
Dark matter's gravity slows cosmic expansion, while dark energy pushes in the opposite direction and causes it to accelerate Read more: Follow us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook

Composite which combines gas temperature (as the color) and shock mach number (as the brightness). Red indicates 10 million Kelvin gas at the centers of massive galaxy clusters, while bright structures show diffuse gas from the intergalactic medium shock heating at the boundary between cosmic voids and filaments. Credit: Illustris Team

This illustration shows the evolution of the Universe, from the Big Bang on the left, to modern times on the right. Image: NASA

Illustris simulation overview poster. Shows the large scale dark matter and gas density fields in projection (top/bottom). Credit: Illustris Project

Gas density (left) and magnetic field strength (right) centered on the most massive galaxy cluster. Credit: Illustris Team

Cosmologists Create Largest Simulation of Galaxy Formation, Break Their Own Record

Illustris' News Release

Illustris Simulation: Most detailed simulation of our Universe

The Illustris simulation is the most ambitious computer simulation of our Universe yet performed. The calculation tracks the expansion of the universe, the gravitational pull of matter onto itself, the motion of cosmic gas, as well as the formation of stars and black holes. These physical components and processes are all modeled starting from initial conditions resembling the very young universe 300,000 years after the Big Bang and until the present day, spanning over 13.8 billion years of cosmic evolution. The simulated volume contains tens of thousands of galaxies captured in high-detail, covering a wide range of masses, rates of star formation, shapes, sizes, and with properties that agree well with the galaxy population observed in the real universe. The simulations were run on supercomputers in France, Germany, and the US. The largest was run on 8,192 compute cores, and took 19 million CPU hours. A single state-of-the-art desktop computer would require more than 2000 years to perform this calculation. Find out more at: Publication: "Properties of galaxies reproduced by a hydrodynamic simulation", Vogelsberger, Genel, Springel, Torrey, Sijacki, Xu, Snyder, Bird, Nelson, Hernquist, Nature 509, 177-182 (08 May 2014) doi:10.1038/nature13316 Music: moonbooter Institutes: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Harvard University, Heidelberg Institute for Theoretical Studies, University of Cambridge, Institute for Advanced Study Princeton, Space Telescope Science Institute


Click here to return to top of page


Astronomers have gone so far as to map where most of the dark matter is in the universe.
Here�s a graphic showing the distribution of dark matter in the universe.

Dark Matter/Dark Energy Infographic

This three-dimensional map offers a first look at the web-like large-scale distribution of dark matter.
The map reveals a loose network of dark matter filaments, gradually collapsing under the relentless pull of gravity,
and growing clumpier over time. Credit: NASA, ESA, and R. Massey (California Institute of Technology)


An Echo of the Big Bang

The anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as observed by Planck.
The CMB is a snapshot of the oldest light in our Universe, imprinted on the sky when the Universe was just 380 000 years old.
It shows tiny temperature fluctuations that correspond to regions of slightly different densities, representing the seeds of all future structure:
the stars and galaxies of today.
ESA and the Planck Collaboration - D. Ducros

A flat map of the CMB

Fluctuation anomalies in the cosmic microwave background. Credit: V. G. Gurzadyan and R. Penrose.

Such a message, Penrose argues, could be encoded in the cosmic microwave background (CMB).
While the CMB is fairly uniform, it does have small fluctuations in temperature.
The scale at which these fluctuations occur tells us about the overall structure of our Universe.
But there are also regions where the fluctuations are more extreme than we’d expect. These anomalies aren’t highly unusual,
but they are interesting enough that some have speculated they might be caused by another Universe.

Galaxy M101, one of the galaxies in the study. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech


BEYOND WIMPS: EXPLORING ALTERNATIVE THEORIES OF DARK MATTER 21 Mar , 2016 by Matt Williams

Image from Dark Universe, showing the distribution of dark matter in the universe.
Credit: AMNH

According to supersymmetry, WIMPs annihilate each other, creating a cascade of particles and radiation
that includes medium-energy gamma rays.
Credit: Sky & Telescope / Gregg Dinderman. Credit: AMNH

Massive 3D map of faraway galaxies to aid search for dark energy
"Using this map we will now be able to make the most accurate possible measurements of dark energy,"
said researcher Florian Beutler.
By Brooks Hays | July 14, 2016 at 3:02 PM

A small sliver of the 3D map of the distant universe. Each dot represents a galaxy six billion years into the past.
The color indicates the galaxy's distance from Earth.
Photo by Daniel Eisenstein/SDSS-III

RESEARCHERS IMAGE DARK MATTER BRIDGE BETWEEN GALAXIES

This false color, composite image shows two galaxies, white, connected by a bridge of dark matter, red. The two galaxies are about 40 light years apart. Image: S. Epps & M. Hudson / University of Waterloo

The Dark Energy Survey!


Click here to return to top of page



Dark Energy


HOW AN ADVANCED CIVILIZATION COULD STOP DARK ENERGY FROM PREVENTING THEIR FUTURE EXPLORATION

How Do We Know Dark Energy Exists?

Sign up to my weekly email newsletter: Support us at:Support us at: : More stories at Follow us on Twitter: @universetoday Like us on Facebook: Google+ - Instagram - Team: Fraser Cain - @fcain / frasercain@gmail.com /Karla Thompson - @karlaii Chad Weber - Chloe Cain - Instagram: @chloegwen2001 I've talked about how astronomers know that dark matter exists. Even though they can’t see it, they detect it through the effect its gravity has on light. Dark matter accounts for 27% of the Universe, dark energy accounts for 68% of the Universe. And again, astronomers really have no idea what what it is, only that they’re pretty sure it does exist. 95% of the nature of the Universe is a complete and total mystery. We just have no idea what this stuff is.

Illustration showing the Lamba Cold Dark Matter (LCDM) model, which indicates how the influence of dark energy has led to an accelerated rate of cosmic expansion. Credit: Wikipedia Commons/Alex Mittelmann

When Will We Be a Type III Civilization? Controlling All The Energy of the Milky Way


Based on our current growth in energy usage, how long will it take before we use up all the energy of our planet, of our star, or even all the energy in our galaxy? Sign up to my weekly email newsletter: Support us at:Support us at: : More stories at Follow us on Twitter: @universetoday Like us on Facebook: Google+ - Instagram - Team: Fraser Cain - @fcain / frasercain@gmail.com /Karla Thompson - @karlaii Chad Weber - Chloe Cain - Instagram: @chloegwen2001

A Dyson Sphere is a megastructure that could be built around a star to harness all the solar energy it gives off. In this video we talk about the different kinds of Dyson Spheres, Dyson Clouds and other megastructures that could be built - and how we might even detect them from Earth. Sign up to my weekly email newsletter: Support us at:Support us at: : More stories at Follow us on Twitter: @universetoday Like us on Facebook: Google+ - Instagram - Team: Fraser Cain - @fcain / frasercain@gmail.com /Karla Thompson - @karlaii Chad Weber - Chloe Cain - Instagram: @chloegwen2001


Click here to return to top of page


OCTOBER 3, 2018 BY MATT WILLIAMS Dark Matter Isn’t Made From Black Holes

In February of 2016, scientists working for the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) made history when they announced the first-ever detection of gravitational waves. Since that time, multiple detections have taken place and scientific collaborations between observatories – like Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo – are allowing for unprecedented levels of sensitivity and data sharing.

A supernova explosion of a massive star appears brighter to an observer on Earth if a black hole sits between the explosion and the observer. Credit: APS/Carin Cain image

Artist’s impression of two merging black holes, which has been theorized to be a source of gravitational waves. Credit: Bohn, Throwe, Hébert, Henriksson, Bunandar, Taylor, Scheel/SXS

According to some theories, the earliest (primordial) black holes formed milliseconds after the Big Bang. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

OCTOBER 23, 2018 BY PAUL M. SUTTER Gravitational Waves Might be the Key to Finding Dark Matter

Exotic dark matter theories. Gravitational waves. Observatories in space. Giant black holes. Colliding galaxies. Lasers. If you’re a fan of all the awesomest stuff in the universe, then this article is for you.

Dark Matter and the Dwarf Galaxy

Small, dim, and dark: the dwarf galaxy UGC 5189A. Image Credit: ESO

The Black Hole Connection

Whenever I mention dark matter in anyway in the Guide to Space, or in a questions show, I get a bunch of responses that have essentially the same point. Astronomers are just speculating, why do they even think dark matter is a thing? Audio Podcast version: ITunes: RSS: Video Podcast version: ITunes: RSS: What Fraser's Watching Playlist: Sign up to my weekly email newsletter: Support us at:Support us at: : More stories at Follow us on Twitter: @universetoday Like us on Facebook: Google+ - Instagram - Team: Fraser Cain - @fcain / frasercain@gmail.com /Karla Thompson - @karlaii Chad Weber - Chloe Cain - Instagram: @chloegwen2001

All about gravitational waves - Ask a Spaceman!

Full podcast episodes: Support: Follow: Follow: on twitter Follow:on Facebook How did Einstein develop General Relativity? What does it mean for space to be curved anyway? And just how do these gravitational waves work, anyhow? I answer these questions and more in today’s Ask a Spaceman! Follow all the show updates at askaspaceman.com, and help support the show at Keep those questions about space, science, astronomy, astrophysics, and cosmology coming to #AskASpaceman on Twitter@PaulMattSutter andFACEBOOK for COMPLETE KNOWLEDGE OF TIME AND SPACE! Music by Jason Grady and Nick Bain.

Formation of LISA Black Hole Binaries in Merging Dwarf Galaxies: the Imprint of Dark Matter (PDF)


Click here to return to top of page


Our Galactic Center


Mystery Object Appears Near Milky Way's Monster Black Hole
by Calla Cofield, Space.com Staff Writer
December 30, 2014 01:36pm ET

A computer simulation shows the G2 gas cloud's encounter with the supermassive black hole Sagittarius A*
at the center of the Milky Way, as well as the paths of the many other objects that orbit the black hole.
Credit: SO/MPE/Marc Schartmann 3

This Stuff Is Circling the Drain of Our Galaxy's Monster Black Hole



A Star Is About To Go 2.5% The Speed Of Light Past A Black Hole

Successful first observations of galactic centre with GRAVITY instrument
EUROPEAN SOUTHERN OBSERVATORY PRESS RELEASE

This artist’s impression shows stars orbiting the supermassive black hole at the centre of the Milky Way.
In 2018 one of these stars, S2, will pass very close to the black hole and this event will be the best opportunity
to study the effects of very strong gravity and test the predictions of Einstein’s general relativity in the near future.
The GRAVITY instrument on the ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer is the most powerful tool for measuring the positions
of these stars in existence and it was successfully tested on the S2 star in the summer of 2016.
The orbit of S2 is shown in red and the position of the central black hole is marked with a red cross.
Illustration credit: ESO/L. Calçada.

STARS ORBITING SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE SHOW EINSTEIN WAS RIGHT AGAIN!

Artist's impression of the orbits of three of the stars very close to the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way. Credit: ESO/M. Parsa/L. Calçada

Artist’s impression of part of S2s orbit around the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way. Credit: ESO/M. Parsa/L. Calçada

SO rbits of three stars very close to the centre of the Milky Way

Uploaded on Aug 2, 2017 This artist's impression video shows the orbits of three of the stars very close to the supermassive black hole at the centre of the Milky Way. Analysis of data from ESO’s Very Large Telescope and other telescopes suggests that the orbits of these stars show the subtle effects predicted by Einstein’s general theory of relativity. There are hints that the orbit of the star called S2 is deviating slightly from the path calculated using classical physics. The end of this sequence highlights the tiny change in the orbit due to the relativistic effects. The position of the black hole is marked with a red cross. More information and download options: Credit: ESO/M. Parsa/L. Calçada Category Science & Technology License Creative Commons Attribution license (reuse allowed)

ESOcast 121 Light: Star orbiting supermassive black hole suggests Einstein is right (4K UHD)

Published on Aug 10, 2017 A new analysis of data from ESO’s Very Large Telescope and other telescopes suggests that the orbits of stars around the supermassive black hole at the centre of the Milky Way show the subtle effects predicted by Einstein’s general theory of relativity. There are hints that the orbit of the star S2 is deviating slightly from the path calculated using classical physics. This tantalising result is a prelude to much more precise measurements and tests of relativity that will be made using the GRAVITY instrument as star S2 passes very close to the black hole in 2018. This short video shows what this result means and why it is important. The video is available in 4K UHD. The ESOcast Light is a series of short videos bringing you the wonders of the Universe in bite-sized pieces. The ESOcast Light episodes will not be replacing the standard, longer ESOcasts, but complement them with current astronomy news and images in ESO press releases. More information and download options Subscribe to ESOcast in iTunes! Receive future episodes on YouTube by pressing the Subscribe button above or follow us on Vimeo: Watch more ESOcast episodes: Find out how to view and contribute subtitles for the ESOcast in multiple languages, :or translate this video on YouTube Credit: European Space Agency Directed by: Nico Bartmann. Editing: Nico Bartmann. Web and technical support: Mathias André and Raquel Yumi Shida. Written by: Izumi Hansen and Richard Hook. Music: Music written and performed by STAN DART Footage and photos: ESO, N. Risinger (skysurvey.org), Digitized Sky Survey 2, M. Parsa, L. Calçada and MPE. Executive producer: Lars Lindberg Christensen. Caption author (Korean) Starlight Moonlight Yu Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License

Artist’s representation of a black hole. Credit: XMM-Newton, ESA, NASA


Astronomers find source of most powerful cosmic rays
Astronomers have traced the source of the most energetic cosmic radiation to the center of the Milky Way.
By University of the Witwatersand, Johannesburg, South Africa | Published: Thursday, March 17, 2016


In yet another discovery emanating from detailed analysis of the latest data from the
High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) observatory in Namibia, an international team of scientists,
including astrophysicists from the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, announced they have found
the most powerful source of cosmic radiation at the center of our galaxy.

BLACK HOLE IMAGED FOR FIRST TIME BY EVENT HORIZON TELESCOPE


Illustration of the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way. Credit: NRAO/AUI/NSF

Simulated view of a black hole. Credit: Bronzwaer/Davelaar/Moscibrodzka/Falcke/Radboud University

Combined image of Sagittarius A shown in x-ray (blue) and infrared (red), provided by the Chandra Observatory and the Hubble Space Telescope. Credit: X-ray: NASA/UMass/D.Wang et al., IR: NASA/STScI

WHAT EXACTLY SHOULD WE SEE WHEN A STAR SPLASHES INTO A BLACK HOLE EVENT HORIZON?


This artist's impression shows a star crossing the event horizon of a supermassive black hole located in the center of a galaxy. The black hole is so large and massive that tidal effects on the star are negligible, and the star is swallowed whole. Image: Mark A. Garlick/CfA

This artist's impression shows a star crossing the event horizon of a supermassive black hole located in the center of a galaxy. The black hole is so large and massive that tidal effects on the star are negligible, and the star is swallowed whole. Image: Mark A. Garlick/CfA

This is the first in a sequence of two artist’s impressions that shows a huge, massive sphere in the center of a galaxy, rather than a supermassive black hole. Here a star moves towards and then smashes into the hard surface of the sphere, flinging out debris. The impact heats up the site of the collision. Image:Mark A. Garlick/CfA

In this second artist’s impression a huge sphere in the center of a galaxy is shown after a star has collided with it. Enormous amounts of heat and a dramatic increase in the brightness of the sphere are generated by this event. The lack of observation of such flares from the center of galaxies means that this hypothetical scenario is almost completely ruled out. Image: Mark A. Garlick/CfA

What Would A Black Hole Look Like? Fraser Cain


Published on Oct 20, 2014 If you could see a black hole with your own eyeballs, what would you see? More stories at: Follow us on Twitter: @universetoday Follow us on Tumblr: Like us on Facebook: Google+ - Instagram - Team: Fraser Cain - @fcain Jason Harmer - @jasoncharmer Susie Murph - @susiemmurph Brian Koberlein - @briankoberlein Chad Weber - weber.chad@gmail.com Kevin Gill - @kevinmgill Created by: Fraser Cain and Jason Harmer Edited by: Chad Weber Music: Left Spine Down - “X-Ray” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KzWwJ...

Infant stars discovered surprisingly near galaxy’s supermassive black hole
National Radio Astronomy Observatory press release


MYSTERIOUS FILAMENT IS STRETCHING DOWN TOWARDS THE MILKY WAY’S SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE


NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope captured this stunning infrared image of the center of the Milky Way Galaxy, where the black hole Sagitarrius A resides. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

A false color Spitzer infrared image of the Milky Way’s Central Molecular Zone (CMZ). Credit: Spitzer/NASA/CfA

A radio image from the NSF’s Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array showing the center of our galaxy. The mysterious radio filament is the curved line located near the center of the image, & the supermassive black hole Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), is shown by the bright source near the bottom of the image. Credit: NSF/VLA/UCLA/M. Morris et al.

Detection of an unusually bright X-Ray flare from Sagittarius A*, a supermassive black hole in the center of the Milky Way galaxy. Credit: NASA/CXC/Stanford/I. Zhuravleva et al.

Labelled image of the center of our galaxy, showing the mysterious radio filament & the supermassive black hole Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*). Credit: NSF/VLA/UCLA/M. Morris et al.

The core of the Milky Way unveiled in clearest infrared image yet


Astronomers have produced the first high-resolution map tracing the magnetic field lines around the Milky Way’s supermassive black hole.
This new high-resolution map shows the magnetic field lines embedded in gas and dust around the supermassive black hole (Sagittarius A*) residing in the core of the Milky Way. Red areas show regions where warm dust particles and stars are emitting lots of infrared radiation (heat), while dark blue areas show cooler regions that lack pronounced warm and dusty filaments. E. Lopez-Rodriguez/NASA Ames/University of Texas at San Antonio

Star is confirmed single and ready to test Einstein’s theory


Astronomers determined the star S0-2, which will test Einstein’s Theory of General Relatively when it swings by our galaxy’s supermassive black hole later this year, does not have a significant binary companion. By Jake Parks | Published: Wednesday, February 28, 2018
S0-2 is one of only a handful of stars that orbit very close to the Milky Way’s supermassive black hole. Later this year, astronomers will eagerly observe S0-2 as it makes its closest pass by the black hole, which will provide a stringent test of Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity. S. Sakai/A. Ghez/W. M. Keck Observatory/UCLA Galactic Center Group

SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES CAN TURN STAR FORMATION ON AND OFF IN A LARGE GALAXY


Colour composite image of Centaurus A, revealing the lobes and jets emanating from the active galaxy’s central black hole. Credit: ESO/NASA/CXC/CfA/WFI/MPIfR/APEX/A.Weiss et al./R.Kraft et al.

The primary mirror of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) at McDonald Observatory. The mirror is made up of 91 segments, and has an effective aperture of 9.2 meters. Credit: Marty Harris/McDonald Observatory

The galaxy NGC 660 – in this and other galaxies, the rate at which new stars are formed appears to be linked to the evolution of the galaxy’s central black hole. Credit: ESA/Hubble/NASA

Artist’s concept of the most distant supermassive black hole ever discovered. It is part of a quasar from just 690 million years after the Big Bang. Credit: Robin Dienel/Carnegie Institution for Science

THE GAIA MISSION COULD MOONLIGHT AS A GRAVITATIONAL WAVE DETECTOR


The ESA's Gaia mission is currently on a five-year mission to map the stars of the Milky Way. Image credit: ESA/ATG medialab; background: ESO/S. Brunier.

Artist’s illustration of two merging neutron stars, which are a source of gravitational waves. Credit: National Science Foundation/LIGO/Sonoma State University/A. Simonnet

Figure showing a Gaia star field, with red and black lines indicating induced apparent motions of the stars within a hemisphere. Credit: Kavli Institute for Cosmology, Cambridge

Artist’s impression of two merging black holes, which has been theorized to be a source of gravitational waves. Credit: Bohn, Throwe, Hébert, Henriksson, Bunandar, Taylor, Scheel/SXS

Maybe There’s no Connection Between Supermassive Black Holes and Their Host Galaxies?


Artist's impression of an ionized gas outflow (green) driven by the central supermassive black hole does not affect the star formation of its host galaxy. This situation may occur if the ionized gas is outflowing perpendicularly to the molecular gas. Credit: ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO)

Images from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) (left), and mid-infrared image from WISE (right), respectively. Credit: Sloan Digital Sky Survey/NASA/JPLCaltech

IEmission from Carbon Monoxide (Left) and Cold Dust (Right) in WISE1029 Observed by ALMA (image). Credit: ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO), Toba et al.

Artist’s impression of the black hole wind at the center of a galaxy. Credit: ESA

EVIDENCE FOR THOUSANDS OF BLACK HOLES BUZZING AROUND THE CENTER OF THE MILKY WAY

Thanks to the Chandra X-ray Observatory

On September 14th, 2013, astronomers caught the largest X-ray flare ever detected from the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way, known as Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*). Credit: NASA/CXC/Stanford/I. Zhuravleva et al.

The center of the Milky Way Galaxy, with X-ray binaries circled in red, other X-ray sources circled in yellow, and Sagittarius A* circled in blue at the center. Credit: NASA/CXC/Columbia University/C. Hailey et al.

Artist”s impression of a black hole binary, consisting of a black hole siphoning material from its companion. Credit: ESO/L. Calçada

THERE ARE STRANGE OBJECTS NEAR THE CENTER OF THE GALAXY. THEY LOOK LIKE GAS, BUT BEHAVE LIKE STARS


The galactic core, observed using infrared light and X-ray light. Credit: NASA, ESA, SSC, CXC, and STScI





Pictured here are members of GCOI in front of Keck Observatory on Maunakea, Hawaii, during a visit last year. Credit: W.M. Keck Observatory

3-D spectro-imaging data cube produced using software called OSIRIS-Volume Display ( OsrsVol) to separate G3, G4, and G5 from the background emission. Credit: W.M. Keck Observatory

A binary star system potentially on the verge of a stellar collision. Credit: Chandra

OCTOBER 23, 2018 BY EVAN GOUGH
Gas and Dust Seen Swirling Around our Galaxy’s Supermassive Black Hole

At the heart of the Milky Way Galaxy lurks a Supermassive Black Hole (SMBH) named Sagittarius A* (Sag. A-star). Sag. A* is an object of intense study, even though you can’t actually see it. But new images from the Atacama Large Millimetre/sub-millimetre Array (ALMA) reveal swirling high-speed clouds of gas and dust orbiting the black hole, the next best thing to seeing the hole itself.

This ALMA image shows the central 2 parsecs of the Milky Way, with Sag. A* circled in the middle. Blue represents carbon monoxide and red represent hydrogen cyanide. The dotted blue and lines represent inner and outer circular orbits around the black hole. The dotted green lines represent elliptical orbits previously proposed to fit the motion of the ionized gas streamers. The motions of the CO and HCN cloudlets follow neither orbit. Image: ALMA, Goicoechea et. al. 2019.

This image shows red and magenta carbon monoxide cloudlets around the central black hole. The black contour lines are the ionized gas streamers, the dominant structure this close to the black hole. The cloudlets don’t conform to the orbits and velocities of the streams of gas. Image: ALMA, Goicoechea et. al. 2019.

High-speed molecular cloudlets around the Galactic center’s supermassive black hole (PDF)


Click here to return to top of page


Our Milky Way Galaxy a black hole/wormhole?


The Entire Milky Way Might Be a Huge Wormhole That�s Stable and Navigable
by Vanessa Janek on January 22, 2015


Artist rendering of a wormhole connecting two galaxies. Credit: Davide and Paolo Salucci.
Our very own Milky Way could be home to a giant tunnel in spacetime.
At least, that�s what the authors of a new study have proposed. According to the team,
a collaboration between Indian, Italian, and North American researchers at the
International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA) in Italy, the central halo of our galaxy
may harbor enough dark matter to support the creation and sustenance of a �stable and navigable�
shortcut to a distant region of spacetime � a phenomenon known as a wormhole

Our very own Milky Way could be home to a giant tunnel in spacetime.


A graphic of the structure of a theorized wormhole (NASA)
But according to the team at SISSA, large amounts of dark matter could provide this fuel.
Using a model of dark matter�s abundance that is based on the rotation curves of other spiral galaxies,
the researchers found that the distribution of dark matter in the Milky Way produced solutions in general relativity that would,
theoretically, allow a stable wormhole to arise.

Galactic wormhole


Published on Jan 21, 2015
The (hypothetical) wormhole proposed by Kuefettig, Salucci et al connecting the center with a very far position
of our Galaxy when one passes through its throat.
Crediti: Davide and Paolo Salucci Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License


Click here to return to top of page


Black Holes!


No Escape from the Inside of a Black Hole


No Escape: Dive Into a Black Hole (Infographic) by Karl Tate - When matter is compressed beyond a certain density,
a black hole is created. It is called black because no light can escape from it. Some black holes are the tombstones
of what were once massive stars. An enormous black hole is thought to lurk at the center of the Milky Way galaxy.

18 BILLION SOLAR MASS BLACK HOLE ROTATES AT 1/3 SPEED OF LIGHT 13 Mar , 2016 by Bob King


Artist’s view of a black hole-powered blazar (a type of quasar) lighting up the center of a remote galaxy.
As matter falls toward the supermassive black hole at the galaxy’s center, some of it is accelerated outward at nearly
the speed of light along jets pointed in opposite directions. When one of the jets happens to be aimed in the direction
of Earth, as illustrated here, the galaxy appears especially bright and is classified as a blazar.
Credits: M. Weiss/CfA

An illustration of the binary black hole system, OJ 287, showing the massive black hole surrounded by an accretion disk.
A second, smaller black hole is believed to orbit the larger. When it intersects the larger’s disk coming and going,
astronomers see a pair of bright flares. The predictions of the model are verified by observations.
Credit: University of Turku

Long exposures made with the Hubble Space Telescope showing brilliant quasars flaring in the hearts of six distant galaxies.
Credit: NASA/ESA

Illustration of a gradually precessing orbit similar to the precessing orbit of the smaller smaller black hole
orbiting the larger in OJ 287. Credit: Willow W / Wikipedia

OJ 287 has been fluctuating around 13.5-140 magnitude lately. You can spot it in a 10-inch
or larger scope in Cancer not far from the Beehive Cluster. Click the image for a detailed AAVSO finder chart.
Diagram: Bob King, source: Stellarium

A supermassive black hole has been found in an unusual spot: an isolated region of space
where only small, dim galaxies reside.
Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

X-ray echoes of a shredded star provide close-up of monster black hole
NASA'S GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER PRESS RELEASE
CREDIT ASTRONOMY NOW MAGAZINE


In this artist’s rendering, a thick accretion disc has formed around a supermassive black hole
following the tidal disruption of a star that wandered too close. Stellar debris has fallen toward the black hole
and collected into a thick chaotic disc of hot gas. Flashes of X-ray light near the centre of the disc result in light echoes
that allow astronomers to map the structure of the funnel-like flow, revealing for the first time strong gravity effects
around a normally quiescent black hole.
Illustration credits: NASA/Swift/Aurore Simonnet, Sonoma State University.

Parallel universes - Black Hole connected to a theoretical White Hole.
- If the theoretical science is correct, there are an infinite number of universes
with same situations and different outcomes, do you believe?

Chandra X-ray Observatory finds evidence for violent stellar merger CHANDRA X-RAY CENTER / NASA'S MARSHALL SPACE FLIGHT CENTER PRESS RELEASE


This artist’s illustration depicts the aftermath of a neutron star merger, including the generation of a Gamma-ray burst (GRB).
In the centre is a compact object — either a black hole or a massive neutron star — and in red is a disc of material
left over from the merger, containing material falling towards the compact object. Energy from this infalling material drives the GRB
jet shown in yellow. In orange is a wind of particles blowing away from the disc and in blue is material ejected from the compact object
and expanding at very high speeds of about one-tenth the speed of light.
Illustration credit: NASA/CXC/M.Weiss.

WHAT IS A SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE? Published: 28 Nov , 2016 by Matt Williams


Detection of an unusually bright X-Ray flare from Sagittarius A*, a supermassive black hole in the center of the Milky Way galaxy. Credit: NASA/CXC/Stanford/I. Zhuravleva et al.

A BLACK HOLE’S RECORD BREAKING LUNCH
by Nancy Atkinson


A trio of X-ray observatories has captured a decade-long eating binge by a black hole almost two billion light years away. Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/UNH/D.Lin et al, Optical: CFHT, Illustration: NASA/CXC/M.Weiss.

A Quick Look at XJ1500+0154


Published on Feb 6, 2017 Black holes are extremely compact and dense, generating incredibly powerful gravitational forces. When an object, like a star, wanders too close, these forces can rip that object to pieces. Some of the material from the doomed object is hurtled out into space. The black hole devours the rest. Astronomers just found a black hole gnawing on the remains of a star for over ten years. This is the largest meal, or the first clean-your-plate job, for a black hole ever seen. Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License

CLOSEST STAR AROUND A BLACK HOLE DISCOVERED


This artist's impression depicts a white dwarf star found in the closest known orbit around a black hole. As the circle around each other, the black hole's gravitational pull drags material from the white dwarf's outer layers toward it. Astronomers found that the white dwarf in X9 completes one orbit around the black hole in less than a half an hour. They estimate the white dwarf and black hole are separated by about 2.5 times the distance between the Earth and Moon — an extraordinarily small span in cosmic terms. (Credit: NASA/CXC/M.Weiss)

Astronomers found an extraordinarily close stellar pairing in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae, a dense collection of stars located on the outskirts of the Milky Way galaxy, about 14,800 light years from Earth. Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/University of Alberta/A.Bahramian et al.

WATCH STARS ORBIT THE MILKY WAY’S SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE


Stars circle 'round the Milky Way central supermassive black hole. Credit: ESO

The Milky Way’s supermassive black hole, called Sagittarius A* (or Sgr A*), is arrowed in the image made of the innermost galactic center in X-ray light by NASA’s Chandra Observatory. To the left or east of Sgr A* is Sgr A East, a large cloud that may be the remnant of a supernova. Centered on Sgr A* is a spiral shaped group of gas streamers that might be falling onto the hole. Credit: NASA/CXC/MIT/Frederick K. Baganoff et al.

This time-lapse movie in infrared light shows how stars in the central light-year of the Milky Way have moved over a period of 14 years. The yellow mark at the image center represents the location of Sgr A*, site of an unseen supermassive black hole. Credit: A. Eckart (U. Koeln) & R. Genzel (MPE-Garching), SHARP I, NTT, La Silla Obs., ESO

On September 14, 2013, astronomers caught the largest X-ray flare ever detected from Sgr A*, the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way, using NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory. This event was 400 times brighter than the usual X-ray output from the source and was possibly caused when Sgr A*’s strong gravity tore apart an asteroid in its neighborhood, heating the debris to X-ray-emitting temperatures before slurping down the remains.The inset shows the giant flare. Credit: NASA

Motion of "S2" and other stars around the central Black Hole


Published on Oct 20, 2012 An international team of astronomers, lead by researchers at the Max-Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE), has directly observed an otherwise normal star orbiting the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. Ten years of painstaking measurements have been crowned by a series of unique images obtained by the Adaptive Optics (AO) NAOS-CONICA (NACO) instrument on the 8.2-m VLT YEPUN telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory. It turns out that earlier this year the star approached the central Black Hole to within 17 light-hours - only three times the distance between the Sun and planet Pluto - while travelling at no less than 5000 km/sec . In a break-through paper appearing in the research journal Nature on October 17th, 2002, the present team reports their exciting results, including high-resolution images that allow tracing two-thirds of the orbit of a star designated "S2" . It is currently the closest observable star to the compact radio source and massive black hole candidate "SgrA*" ("Sagittarius A") at the very center of the Milky Way. The orbital period is just over 15 years. The new measurements exclude with high confidence that the central dark mass consists of a cluster of unusual stars or elementary particles, and leave little doubt of the presence of a supermassive black hole at the centre of the galaxy in which we live . ESO Press Video eso0226 was produced by the Max-Planck-Society and shows the observed motions of S2 and other stars in this area. Credit: ESO Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License

Two Black Holes Merge into One


Published on Feb 11, 2016 A computer simulation shows the collision of two black holes, a tremendously powerful event detected for the first time ever by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory, or LIGO. LIGO detected gravitational waves, or ripples in space and time generated as the black holes spiraled in toward each other, collided, and merged. This simulation shows how the merger would appear to our eyes if we could somehow travel in a spaceship for a closer look. It was created by solving equations from Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity using the LIGO data. The two merging black holes are each roughly 30 times the mass of the sun, with one slightly larger than the other. Time has been slowed down by a factor of about 100. The event took place 1.3 billion years ago. The stars appear warped due to the incredibly strong gravity of the black holes. The black holes warp space and time, and this causes light from the stars to curve around the black holes in a process called gravitational lensing. The ring around the black holes, known as an Einstein ring, arises from the light of all the stars in a small region behind the holes, where gravitational lensing has smeared their images into a ring. The gravitational waves themselves would not be seen by a human near the black holes and so do not show in this video, with one important exception. The gravitational waves that are traveling outward toward the small region behind the black holes disturb that region’s stellar images in the Einstein ring, causing them to slosh around, even long after the collision. The gravitational waves traveling in other directions cause weaker, and shorter-lived sloshing, everywhere outside the ring. This simulation was created by the multi-university SXS (Simulating eXtreme Spacetimes) project. For more information, visit Image credit: SXS Category Science & Technology License Creative Commons Attribution license (reuse allowed) Source videos View attributionse

AFTER TWO BLACK HOLES COLLIDE, A PUZZLING FLASH

ON SEPT. 14, 2015, at almost the exact same time that a pair of sprawling gravitational-wave detectors heard the last gasp of a collision between two black holes, another, more perplexing observation took place. Over 500 kilometers above the surface of the Earth, the orbiting Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope logged a passing burst of gamma rays, a high-energy form of light. The signal was so slight that the NASA scientists who run the satellite didn’t notice it at first.

HUBBLE WATCHES SPINNING BLACK HOLE SWALLOW A STAR


Close-up of star near a supermassive black hole (artist’s impression). Credit: ESA/Hubble, ESO, M. Kornmesser

This artist’s impression depicts a rapidly spinning supermassive black hole surrounded by an accretion disc. Credit: ESA/Hubble, ESO, M. Kornmesse

Spinning supermassive black hole rips star apart (artist’s impression)
Credit:HubbleESA


This animation shows how the ASASSN-15lh most likely happened. A Sun-like star gets into the area of influence of a rapidly spinning supermassive black hole in the centre of a distant galaxy. While its orbit gets constantly closer to the black hole the star gets “spaghettified”, creating an accretion disc around the supermassive black hole. When it finally gets ripped apart close to the event horizon it creates a bright flash, that could resemble a superluminous supernova. More information and download options for this video ESA's Video dierectory page Credit: ESA/Hubble, ESO, M. Kornmesser Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License

Supermassive black hole rips star apart (simulation)


This simulation shows a star getting torn apart by the gravitational tides of a supermassive black hole. The star gets “spaghettified” and after several orbits creates an accretion disc. Scientists believe that the superluminous ASASSN-15lh event happened like that. More information and download options for this video ESA's Video dierectory page Credit: ESA/Hubble, ESO, N. Stone, K. Hayasaki Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License

The Missing Link: Where Are Medium-Size Black Holes?


While black holes with masses of a few suns and ones with masses of millions of suns exist, scientists have been puzzled to see few with masses in between those two extremes. New work may suggest a reason why. Credit: Ute Kraus/Wikipedia, CC BY-SA

NEW METHOD FOR RESEARCHING ACTIVITY AROUND QUASARS AND BLACK HOLES


Artist’s impression of ULAS J1120+0641, a very distant quasar powered by a black hole with a mass two billion times that of the Sun. Credit: ESO/M. Kornmesser Ever since the discovery of Sagittarius A* at the center of our galaxy, astronomers have come to understand that most massive galaxies have a Supermassive Black Hole (SMBH) at their core. These are evidenced by the powerful electromagnetic emissions produced at the nuclei of these galaxies – which are known as “Active Galatic Nuclei” (AGN) – that are believed to be caused by gas and dust accreting onto the SMBH. For decades, astronomers have been studying the light coming from AGNs to determine how large and massive their black holes are. This has been difficult, since this light is subject to the Doppler effect, which causes its spectral lines to broaden. But thanks to a new model developed by researchers from China and the US, astronomers may be able to study these Broad Line Regions (BLRs) and make more accurate estimates about the mass of black holes.

An artist’s impression of the accretion disc around the supermassive black hole that powers an active galaxy. Credit: NASA/Dana Berry, SkyWorks Digital

Dense clouds of dust and gas, illustrated here, can obscure less energetic radiation from an active galaxy’s central black hole. High-energy X-rays, however, easily pass through. Credit: ESA/NASA/AVO/Paolo Padovani

ASTRONOMERS FIGURE OUT HOW BLACK HOLES CAN BLAST OUT RELATIVISTIC JETS OF MATERIAL ACROSS LIGHT YEARS OF SPACE


Artist's impression of the relativistic jet emanating from a black hole. Credit: Northwestern University

See model W-HR in Movie shows the data of 7,400 - 31,000 t_g. Unfortunately, the data of the first 0-7,400 t_g was corrupted due to output error. The accretion disc is initially turned slightly to the left and towards the viewer (black hole spin is pointing vertical in the movie). We see how the relativistic jets are launched (greatly disturbing the accretion disc) and how they point along the rotation axis of the disc (slightly to the left and towards the viewer), and not along the black hole spin. Over time, we see how the jets and disc change direction together, moving slightly to the right and aligning slightly with the black hole. Together, the disc and jets precess around the black hole spin about 40 degrees over the entire simulation. Precession of the accretion disc was predicted by Lense and Thirring in 1918 (and confirmed in previous work). Here, we present the first simulation ever to demonstrate that jets follow along with the precession of the accretion disc.

Detection of an unusually bright X-Ray flare from Sagittarius A*, a supermassive black hole in the center of the Milky Way galaxy. Credit: NASA/CXC/Stanford/I. Zhuravleva et al.

A BLACK HOLE IS PUSHING THE STARS AROUND IN THIS GLOBULAR CLUSTER


Artist's impression of the star cluster NGC 3201 orbiting an black hole with about four times the mass of the Sun. Credit: ESO/L. Calçada

Astronomers using ESO’s MUSE instrument on the Very Large Telescope in Chile have discovered a star in the cluster NGC 3201 that is behaving very strangely. It appears to be orbiting an invisible black hole with about four times the mass of the Sun — the first such inactive stellar-mass black hole found in a globular cluster. This important discovery impacts on our understanding of the formation of these star clusters, black holes, and the origins of gravitational wave events. This artist’s impression shows how the star and its massive but invisible black hole companion may look, as they orbit each other in the rich heart of the globular star cluster. More information and download options: Credit: ESO/L. Calçada/spaceengine.org

Astronomers using ESO’s MUSE instrument on the Very Large Telescope in Chile have discovered a star in the cluster NGC 3201 that is behaving very strangely. It appears to be orbiting an invisible black hole with about four times the mass of the Sun — the first such inactive stellar-mass black hole found in a globular cluster. This important discovery impacts on our understanding of the formation of these star clusters, black holes, and the origins of gravitational wave events. This artist’s impression shows how the star and its massive but invisible black hole companion may look, as they orbit each other in the rich heart of the globular star cluster. More information and download options: Credit: ESO/L. Calçada/spaceengine.org

Astronomers using ESO’s MUSE instrument on the Very Large Telescope in Chile have discovered a star in the cluster NGC 3201 that is behaving very strangely. It appears to be orbiting an invisible black hole with about four times the mass of the Sun — the first such inactive stellar-mass black hole found in a globular cluster. This important discovery impacts on our understanding of the formation of these star clusters, black holes, and the origins of gravitational wave events. This short ESOcast takes a look at this discovery and its significance. The video is available in 4K UHD. The ESOcast Light is a series of short videos bringing you the wonders of the Universe in bite-sized pieces. The ESOcast Light episodes will not be replacing the standard, longer ESOcasts, but complement them with current astronomy news and images in ESO press releases. More information and download options: Subscribe to ESOcast in iTunes! Receive future episodes on YouTube by pressing the Subscribe button above or follow us on Vimeo: Watch more ESOcast episodes: :Find out how to view and contribute subtitles for the ESOcast in multiple languages, or translate this video on YouTube Credit: ESO.

OUTFLOWS FROM BLACK HOLES ARE CREATING NEW MOLECULES WHERE THERE SHOULD ONLY BE DESTRUCTION


Artist's impression of the black hole wind at the center of a galaxy. Credit: ESA

Artist’s impression of a black hole’s wind sweeping away galactic gas. Credit: ESA

Artist’s concept of Sagittarius A, the supermassive black hole at the center of our galaxy. Credit: NASA/JPL

Books and Black Holes: Stephen Hawking's Language Helps Us Grasp the Cosmos By Doris Elin Salazar, Space.com Contributor | March 17, 2018 06:15am ET


Visualization of a black hole. Credit: D. Coe, J. Anderson, and R. van der Marel (STScI)/NASA/ESA On April Fools' Day in 1988, a modern science classic by world-renowned theoretical physicist and cosmologist Stephen Hawking was published. Called "A Brief History of Time," it set off a wave of public curiosity about humanity's place in the universe.

NASA Captured A Super-Massive Black Hole! *2018*

In 2005 scientists discovered a huge energy burst which occurred 150 million light-years away from Earth inside a galaxy named 'Arp-299'. They thought it's a supernova explosion but it was't. In 2011, scientists discovered that the energy burst is elongating which makes it a jet of energy coming from unknown source. 2 months ago in 2018, research showed it was actually a Black Hole 20 million times more massive than sun eating a star. For the very first time, NASA recently captured the first ever image of a Black Hole. Watch Black Hole Image:
Black Holes are known to swallow everything coming in their path but that's not the end. With time they they emit enormous amounts of energy. In 2015 Hubble Telescope captured something that shocked the entire world. It was a burst of plasma jet 260 million light years away in space coming from an unknown source. Calculations showed that the jet was travelling at 98% the speed of light. Scientists finally concluded that they have captured a plasma burst coming from a super-massive Black Hole. Which is located inside a galaxy 260 million light-years away. Join me on instagram Source NASA Darkest Child A by Kevin MacLeod, License Artist:

The Very First Image of a Black Hole Has Finally Been Released...

Black holes are still something we don’t know a lot about. They’re mysterious and they’re very scary. Exactly how do they work and what exactly do they do? Do they really suck in all matter and then spit it out into another dimension? A lot of people believe that there’s a white hole for this very purpose but no one knows for sure. What do you think happens inside of a black hole? 10. The First Image of a Black Hole Was Captured in 1979 9. Do Black Holes Really Suck in Everything and Let Nothing Escape? 8. The Most Accurate Image Was Done Without CGI 7. A Company is Trying to Recreate These Results in 2018 6. Why the Very First Image of a Black Hole is Hard to Capture and Why We May Never have One 5. Nearly Every Image We See of a Black Hole is An Illustration 4. Black Holes Are as The Name Suggests, Actually Black 3.??? 2. ?? 1. ? ► SUBSCRIBE TO AMERIKANO!: ► VISIT OUR SITE FOR THE BEST ARTICLES!: ► For copyright matters please contact us:


Click here to return to top of page


MAGNETARS!


First “wind nebula” found around an ultra-magnetic neutron star, or magnetar
NASA'S GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER PRESS RELEASE
Credit Astronomy Now Magazine


This X-ray image shows extended emission around a source known as Swift J1834.9-0846,
a rare ultra-magnetic neutron star called a magnetar. The glow arises from a cloud of fast-moving particles produced
by the neutron star and corralled around it. Colour indicates X-ray energies, with 2,000-3,000 electron volts (eV) in red,
3,000-4,500 eV in green, and 5,000 to 10,000 eV in blue.
The image combines observations by the European Space Agency’s XMM-Newton spacecraft taken on 16 March and 16 October 2014.
Image credits: ESA/XMM-Newton/Younes et al. 2016.

First "Wind Nebula" Seen Around a Magnetar


Artist Impression ESO/L CALCACA Take the mass of half a million Earths and compress it down to the size of Manhattan.
If you have taken precaution and survived the energy release from this process, then well done!
You’ve got yourself a neutron star, one of the densest objects in the universe. CREDIT Meet the IFLScience Team Alfredo Carpineti staff writwer

Magnetar could have boosted explosion of extremely bright supernova

Artist’s impression of a magnetar boosting a super-luminous supernova and gamma-ray burst.
Image credit: Kavli IPMU.

The yellow-orange host galaxy (left) before the supernova, and afterwards (right) when the ASASSN-15lh
supernova’s blue light outshines its host galaxy.
Image credit: The Dark Energy Survey / B. Shappee / ASAS-SN team.

Light curves of ASASSN-15lh and SN 2011kl compared with normal supernovae SN 1999em and SN 1987A.
Image credit: Bersten et al.

Some neutron stars may end up as ultra-small black holes.

A MAGNETAR JUST WOKE UP AFTER THREE YEARS OF SILENCE


Aerial image of the South African MeerKAT radio telescope, part of the Square Kilometer Array (SKA). Credit: SKA

Artist’s rendering of an outburst on an ultra-magnetic neutron star, also called a magnetar. Credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

Aerial image of the South African MeerKAT radio telescope in the Karoo, South Africa. Credit: SKA

What are Magnetars?


Published on Aug 9, 2016 Magnetars are neutron stars with massively boosted magnetic fields.
How do this stellar remnants form, and what would happen if you got too close to one? Support us More stories at: Follow us on Twitter: @universetoday Follow us on Tumblr Like us on Facebook Google+ - Instagram - Team: Fraser Cain - @fcain Jason Harmer - @jasoncharmer Chad Weber - weber.chad@gmail.com Created by: Fraser Cain and Jason Harmer Edited by: Chad Weber Music: Left Spine Down - “X-Ray”


Click here to return to top of page


PULSARS


SPACE JELLYFISH SHOW TYPES OF PULSAR WIND NEBULAS


Four-panel graphic showing the two pulsars, Geminga (upper left) and B0355+54 (upper right), observed by Chandra. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/CXC/PSU/B.Posselt et al/N.Klingler et al/Nahks TrEhnl

From left to right, images showing the moments before, during, and after the faint supernova iPTF14gqr (visible in the middle panel) took place. Credit: SDSS/Caltech/Keck

Pulsar Animation


Published on May 14, 2013 Pulsars are thought to emit relatively narrow radio beams, shown as green in this animation. If these beams don't sweep toward Earth, astronomers cannot detect the radio signals. Pulsar gamma-ray emission (magenta) is thought to form a broader fan of radiation that can be detected even when the radio beam is unfavorably oriented. (No audio.) Credit: NASA/Fermi/Cruz deWilde Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License

An artist’s impression of an accreting X-ray millisecond pulsar. Credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center/Dana Berry

An all-sky view from the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, showing the position of Geminga in the Milky Way. Credit : NASA/DOE/International LAT Team.

AN AGING PULSAR HAS CAPTURED A NEW COMPANION, AND IT’S SPINNING BACK UP AGAIN


An artist's impression of a pulsar syphoning material away from a companion star, leading to the formation of a millisecond pulsar.

The slowest spinning X-ray pulsar in a globular star cluster has been discovered in the Andromeda galaxy. Credit: A. Zolotov

A diagram of the ESA XMM-Newton X-Ray Telescope. Delivered to orbit by a Ariane 5 launch vehicle in 1999. Credit: ESA/XMM-Newton

The Slowest Spinning X-Ray Pulsar in an Extragalactic Globular Cluster


From THE

The Astrophysical Journal

Millisecond Pulsar with Magnetic Field Structure


Published on Sep 25, 2013 This animation illustrates how an old pulsar in a binary system can be reactivated -- and sped up to a millisecond spin -- by accreting gas from its companion star. A pulsar is a rapidly rotating neutron star that emits pulses of radiation (such as X-rays and radio waves) at regular intervals. A millisecond pulsar is one with a rotational period between 1 and 10 milliseconds, or from 60,000 to 6,000 revolutions per minute. Pulsars form in supernova explosions, but even newborn pulsars don't spin at millisecond speeds, and they gradually slow down with age. If, however, a pulsar is a member of a binary system with a normal star, gas transferred from the companion can spin up an old, slow pulsar to the millisecond range. For more information, go to This video is public domain and can be downloaded at: Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License

SECOND FASTEST PULSAR SPINS 42,000 TIMES A MINUTE


Artist's illustration of a rotating neutron star, the remnants of a super nova explosion. Credit: NASA, Caltech-JPL

An all-sky view in gamma ray light made with the Fermi gamma ray space telescope. Credit: NASA/DOE/International LAT Team

Artist’s impression of a pulsar siphoning material from a companion star. Credit: NASA

'Black Widow' Pulsar Animation


This animation shows a black widow pulsar like J0952 together with its small stellar companion, as seen from within their orbital plane. Powerful radiation and the pulsar's "wind" — an outflow of high-energy particles — strongly heat the facing side of the companion, evaporating it over time. Credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center/Cruz deWilde This video is public domain and may be downloaded at: Related story: Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License

NASA | A Black Widow Pulsar Consumes its Mate


Black widow spiders and their Australian cousins, known as redbacks, are notorious for an unsettling tendency to kill and devour their male partners. Astronomers have noted similar behavior among two rare breeds of binary system that contain rapidly spinning neutron stars, also known as pulsars. The essential features of black widow and redback binaries are that they place a normal but very low-mass star in close proximity to a millisecond pulsar, which has disastrous consequences for the star. Black widow systems contain stars that are both physically smaller and of much lower mass than those found in redbacks. So far, astronomers have found at least 18 black widows and nine redbacks within the Milky Way, and additional members of each class have been discovered within the dense globular star clusters that orbit our galaxy. One black widow system, named PSR J1311-3430 and discovered in 2012, sets the record for the tightest orbit of its class and contains one of the heaviest neutron stars known. The pulsar's featherweight companion, which is only a dozen or so times the mass of Jupiter and just 60 percent of its size, completes an orbit every 93 minutes -- less time than it takes to watch most movies. The side of the star facing the pulsar is heated to more than 21,000 degrees Fahrenheit (nearly 12,000 C), or more than twice as hot as the sun's surface. Recent studies allow a range of values extending down to 2 solar masses for the pulsar, making it one of the most massive neutron stars known. Watch the video to learn more about this system and its discovery from some of the scientists involved. :This video is public domain and can be downloaded at Like our videos? Subscribe to NASA's Goddard Shorts HD podcast: Or find NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on Facebook: Or find us on Twitter: Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License

ASTRONOMERS OBSERVE A PULSAR 6500 LIGHT-YEARS FROM EARTH AND SEE TWO SEPARATE FLARES COMING OFF ITS SURFACE


Artist’s impression of the pulsar PSR B1957+20 (seen in the background) through the cloud of gas enveloping its brown dwarf star companion. Credit: Dr. Mark A. Garlick; Dunlap Institute for Astronomy & Astrophysics, University of Toronto

What Is A Pulsar?


his question comes from William. He writes "Hi Fraser, I was wondering if you could do a video on pulsars like you did on quasars." You got it. Stars are held in perfect balance between the pressure of gravity pulling them inward, and the outward force of radiation. Once stars runs out of fuel, they collapses in on themselves - it's the amount of mass decides what happens next. The most massive stars detonate as supernovae, and can explode or collapse into black holes. If they're less massive, like our Sun, they blast away their outer layers and then slowly cool down as white dwarfs. But for stars between 1.4 and 3.2 times the mass of the Sun, they may still become supernovae, but they just don't have enough mass to make a black hole. These medium mass objects end their lives as neutron stars, and some of these can become pulsars or magnetars. Gravity overwhelms the atomic bonds of the matter in a neutron star, crushing protons and electrons together into neutrons. This is how they get their name. A star that used to be more than a million kilometers wide is now less than 20 kilometers across. This material is so dense, that a single sugar cube's worth weigh about 100 million tonnes on Earth. And you would need to be traveling 100,000 km/s to escape a neutron star's pull - about 1/3rd the speed of light. So that's how you get a neutron star. But what about these pulsars? When these stars collapse, they maintain their angular momentum. But with a much smaller size, their rotational speed increases dramatically, spinning many times a second. This relatively tiny, super dense object, emits a powerful blast of radiation along its magnetic field lines. Although this beam of radiation doesn't necessarily line up with it's axis of rotation. And so, from here on Earth, astronomers detect an intense beam of radio emissions several times a second, as it rotates around like a lighthouse beam. This is a pulsar. The first one was detected in 1967 by Jocelyn Bell Burnell and Antony Hewis. They detected a mysterious radio emission coming from a fixed point in the sky that peaked every 1.33 seconds. Although they were certain it had a natural origin, they named it LGM-1, which stands for "little green men", and subsequent discoveries have helped astronomers discover the true nature of these strange objects. Pulsars have been discovered emitting many different wavelengths of light, from radio to visible and even X and gamma rays. There have been a total of 1600 found so far, and the fastest discovered emits 716 pulses a second. When a pulsar first forms, it has the most energy and fastest rotational speed. As it releases electromagnetic power through its beams, it gradually slows down. Within 10 to 100 million years, it slows to the point that its beams shut off and the pulsar becomes quiet. When they are active, they spin with such uncanny regularity that they're used as timers by astronomers. Pulsars help us search for gravitational waves, probe the interstellar medium, and even find extrasolar planets in orbit. It has even been proposed that spacecraft could use them as beacons to help navigate around the Solar System. On NASA's Voyager spacecraft, there are maps that show the direction of the Sun to 14 pulsars in our region. If aliens wanted to find our home planet, they couldn't ask for a more accurate map. I hope that helps, William.

Image of the pulsar surrounded by its bow shock. White rays indicate particles of matter and antimatter being spewed from the star. Its companion star is too close to the pulsar to be visible at this scale. Credit: NASA/CXC/M.Weiss

Pulsar SOUND

This pulsar lies near the centre of the Vela supernova remnant, which is the debris of the explosion of a massive star about 10,000 years ago. The pulsar is the collapsed core of this star, rotating with a period of 89 milliseconds or about 11 times a second.

"Impossible" Pulsar Breaks the Rules | Space News

Want to network with other like-minded individuals? Join us at EU2015 Conference: Paths of Discovery, June 25-29, Sheraton Phoenix Downtown. Start your journey here: A newly discovered star has astonished a team of scientists. They say that nothing at this moment can explain what is happening. The star is called a "pulsar," which is a star that appears to pulse rapidly with intense radio wave emissions. However, this pulsar switches unpredictably between radio and x-ray emissions, leaving astronomers openly baffled. Subscribe to Thunderbolts Update weekly newsletter Thunderbolts Project Home: Facebook: Picture of the Day: Electric Universe (Wal Thornhill) Essential Guide to the Electric Universe:


Click here to return to top of page


Supernovas!


Supernova Infographic


NEW ESTIMATE PUTS THE SUPERNOVA KILLZONE WITHIN 50 LIGHT-YEARS OF EARTH


FOR THE FIRST TIME, ASTRONOMERS HAVE FOUND A STAR THAT SURVIVED ITS COMPANION EXPLODING AS SUPERNOVA


Hubble image of the supernova SN 2001ig, which indicated the presence of a companion. Credits: NASA, ESA, S. Ryder (Australian Astronomical Observatory), and O. Fox (STScI)

Report on Supernova survivor(PDF)

Artist’s impression of a pulsar siphoning material from a companion star. Credit: NASA

Artist’s rendering of SN 1993J, where a red supergiant supernova progenitor star (left) is exploding after having transferred about 10 solar masses of hydrogen gas to the blue companion star (right). Credit: ESA

What Are The Different Kinds of Supernovae?


Published on Mar 14, 2016 Supernovae are some of the most powerful explosions in the Universe, releasing more energy in a moment than most stars will release in their entire lifetimes. Support us at: More stories at: Twitter: @universetoday Facebook: Google+ - Instagram - Team: Fraser Cain - @fcain Chad Weber - weber.chad@gmail.com Created by: Fraser Cain and Jason Harmer Edited by: Chad Weber Music: Left Spine Down - “X-Ray” There are a few places in the Universe that defy comprehension. And supernovae have got to be the most extreme places you can imagine. We’re talking about a star with potentially dozens of times the size and mass of our own Sun that violently dies in a faction of a second. Faster than it take me to say the word supernova, a complete star collapses in on itself, creating a black hole, forming the denser elements in the Universe, and then exploding outward with the energy of millions or even billions of stars.

What Are The Different Kinds of Supernovae?


Published on Aug 25, 2014 A NASA sounding rocket has confirmed that the solar system is inside an ancient supernova remnant. Life on Earth survived despite the nearby blasts. Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License

Hubble Movie Shows Movement of Light Echo Around Exploded Star
Release date: Nov 9, 2017 1:00 PM (EST)


Light from Supernova Bouncing Off Giant Dust Cloud Voices reverberating off mountains and the sound of footsteps bouncing off walls are examples of an echo. Echoes happen when sound waves ricochet off surfaces and return to the listener. Space has its own version of an echo. It’s not made with sound but with light, and occurs when light bounces off dust clouds. The Hubble telescope has just captured one of these cosmic echoes, called a “light echo,” in the nearby starburst galaxy M82, located 11.4 million light-years away. A movie assembled from more than two years’ worth of Hubble images reveals an expanding shell of light from a supernova explosion sweeping through interstellar space three years after the stellar blast was discovered. The “echoing” light looks like a ripple expanding on a pond. The supernova, called SN 2014J, was discovered on Jan. 21, 2014. A light echo occurs because light from the stellar blast travels different distances to arrive at Earth. Some light comes to Earth directly from the supernova blast. Other light is delayed because it travels indirectly. In this case, the light is bouncing off a huge dust cloud that extends 300 to 1,600 light-years around the supernova and is being reflected toward Earth. So far, astronomers have spotted only 15 light echoes around supernovae outside our Milky Way galaxy. Light echo detections from supernovae are rarely seen because they must be nearby for a telescope to resolve them.

KILONOVA NEUTRON STAR COLLISION PROBABLY LEFT BEHIND A BLACK HOLE


Artist's illustration of two merging neutron stars. The narrow beams represent the gamma-ray burst while the rippling spacetime grid indicates the isotropic gravitational waves that characterize the merger. Swirling clouds of material ejected from the merging stars are a possible source of the light that was seen at lower energies. Credit: National Science Foundation/LIGO/Sonoma State University/A. Simonnet

Collisions of neutron stars produce powerful gamma-ray bursts – and heavy elements like gold. Credit: Dana Berry, SkyWorks Digital, Inc.


Click here to return to top of page


QUASARS!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!


Too Big, Too Soon. Monster Black Hole Seen Shortly After the Big Bang


This artist's concept shows the most distant supermassive black hole ever discovered. It is part of a quasar from just 690 million years after the Big Bang. Credit: Robin Dienel/Carnegie Institution for Science

Artist’s impression of ULAS J1120+0641, a very distant quasar powered by a black hole with a mass two billion times that of the Sun. Credit: ESO/M. Kornmesser

Artist’s impression of ULAS J1120+0641, a very distant quasar powered by a black hole with a mass two billion times that of the Sun. Credit: ESO/M. Kornmesser

A billion years after the big bang, hydrogen atoms were mysteriously torn apart into a soup of ions. Credit: NASA/ESA/A. Felid (STScI)).

We May Soon Be Able To See the First, Supergiant Stars in the Universe

We need to talk about the dark ages. No, not those dark ages after the fall of the western Roman Empire. The cosmological dark ages. The time in our universe, billions of years ago, before the formation of the first stars. And we need to talk about the cosmic dawn: the birth of those first stars, a tumultuous epoch that completely reshaped the face the cosmos into its modern form.

The Awesome Power of the Quasar - Ask a Spaceman!

What powers a quasar? Just how strong is a blazar? What’s the connection to giant black holes? I discuss these questions and more in today’s Ask a Spaceman! Full podcast episodes: Follow on Twitter: Like on Facebook: How do we measure the expansion history of the universe? Why are supernovae so dang useful? Come on, what’s with this “dark energy” business? I discuss these questions and more in today’s Ask a Spaceman! Support the show: All episodes: Follow on Twitter: : Like on Facebook Watch on YouTube: Keep those questions about space, science, astronomy, astrophysics, physics, and cosmology coming to #AskASpaceman for COMPLETE KNOWLEDGE OF TIME AND SPACE! Big thanks to my top Patreon supporters this month: Mathieu B., Justin G., Tim F., Helge B., Alan M., Tim R., Ray S., Michael C., Bill S., Lars H., David C., Silvan W., David B., Kevin O., Justin R., Jessica K., James L., and Michael Z.! Music by Jason Grady and Nick Bain. Thanks to WCBE Radio for hosting the recording session, Greg Mobius for producing, and Cathy Rinella for editing. Hosted by Paul M. Sutter, astrophysicist at The Ohio State University, Chief Scientist at COSI Science Center, and the one and only Agent to the Stars Category Subscribe: Follow: on Twitter Support: on Patreon Keep those questions about space, science, astronomy, astrophysics, and cosmology coming for COMPLETE KNOWLEDGE OF TIME AND SPACE!

The First Stars in the Universe - Ask a Spaceman!

Were the dark ages really dark? What is a perturbation, and how did they grow in the early universe? When the first stars awoke, what happened? I discuss these questions and more in today’s Ask a Spaceman! Full podcast episodes: Follow on Twitter: Like on Facebook: How do we measure the expansion history of the universe? Why are supernovae so dang useful? Come on, what’s with this “dark energy” business? I discuss these questions and more in today’s Ask a Spaceman! Support the show: All episodes: Follow on Twitter: : Like on Facebook Watch on YouTube: Keep those questions about space, science, astronomy, astrophysics, physics, and cosmology coming to #AskASpaceman for COMPLETE KNOWLEDGE OF TIME AND SPACE! Big thanks to my top Patreon supporters this month: Mathieu B., Justin G., Tim F., Helge B., Alan M., Tim R., Ray S., Michael C., Bill S., Lars H., David C., Silvan W., David B., Kevin O., Justin R., Jessica K., James L., and Michael Z.! Music by Jason Grady and Nick Bain. Thanks to WCBE Radio for hosting the recording session, Greg Mobius for producing, and Cathy Rinella for editing. Hosted by Paul M. Sutter, astrophysicist at The Ohio State University, Chief Scientist at COSI Science Center, and the one and only Agent to the Stars Category Subscribe: Follow: on Twitter Support: on Patreon Keep those questions about space, science, astronomy, astrophysics, and cosmology coming for COMPLETE KNOWLEDGE OF TIME AND SPACE!

What Comes After James Webb and WFIRST? Four Amazing Future Space Telescopes

The Hubble Space Telescope has been in space for 28 years, producing some of the most beautiful and scientifically important images of the cosmos that humanity has ever taken. But let’s face it, Hubble is getting old, and it probably won’t be with us for too much longer. NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope is in the final stages of testing, and WFIRST is waiting in the wings. You’ll be glad to know there are even more space telescopes in the works, a set of four powerful instruments in design right now, which will be part of the next Decadal Survey, and helping to answer the most fundamental questions about the cosmos. Audio Podcast version: ITunes: RSS: Video Podcast version: ITunes: RSS: What is Fraser's Watching Playlist: --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Sign up to my weekly email newsletter: Support us at:Support us at: : More stories at Follow us on Twitter: @universetoday Like us on Facebook: Google+ - Instagram - Team: Fraser Cain - @fcain / frasercain@gmail.com /Karla Thompson - @karlaii Chad Weber - Chloe Cain - Instagram: @chloegwen2001


Click here to return to top of page


Topics on Gravity Waves

Thanks to the LASER Interferometer Observatory (LIGO)



OCTOBER 24, 2018 BY MATT WILLIAMS It Could be Possible to Transfer Data Through Gravitational Waves

This discovery not only opened up an exciting new field of research, but has opened the door to many intriguing possibilities. One such possibility, according to a new study by a team of Russian scientists, is that gravitational waves could be used to transmit information. In much the same way as electromagnetic waves are used to communicate via antennas and satellites, the future of communications could be gravitationally-based.

What Are Gravitational Waves?

When massive objects crash into each other, there should be a release of gravitational waves. So what are these things and how can we detect them? Sign up to my weekly email newsletter: Support us at:Support us at: : More stories at Follow us on Twitter: @universetoday Like us on Facebook: Google+ - Instagram - Team: Fraser Cain - @fcain / frasercain@gmail.com /Karla Thompson - @karlaii Chad Weber - Chloe Cain - Instagram: @chloegwen2001

Gravitational Astronomy? How Detecting Gravitational Waves Changes Everything

We’ve now had multiple detections of gravitational waves, opening up a whole new field: gravitational astronomy. We talk about the detections made so far, and how we can see the Universe in a whole new way. Sign up to my weekly email newsletter: Support us at:Support us at: : More stories at Follow us on Twitter: @universetoday Like us on Facebook: Google+ - Instagram - Team: Fraser Cain - @fcain / frasercain@gmail.com /Karla Thompson - @karlaii Chad Weber - Chloe Cain - Instagram: @chloegwen2001

OCTOBER 26, 2018 BY PAUL M. SUTTER
Gravitational waves were only recently observed, and now astronomers are already
thinking of ways to use them: like accurately measuring the expansion rate of the Universe

Neutron stars scream in waves of spacetime when they die, and astronomers have outlined a plan to use their gravitational agony to trace the history of the universe. Join us as we explore how to turn their pain into our cosmological profit.

Supernova, The Ultimate Standard Candle - Ask a Spaceman!

Full podcast episodes: Follow on Twitter: Like on Facebook: How do we measure the expansion history of the universe? Why are supernovae so dang useful? Come on, what’s with this “dark energy” business? I discuss these questions and more in today’s Ask a Spaceman! Support the show: All episodes: Follow on Twitter: : Like on Facebook Watch on YouTube: Keep those questions about space, science, astronomy, astrophysics, physics, and cosmology coming to #AskASpaceman for COMPLETE KNOWLEDGE OF TIME AND SPACE! Big thanks to my top Patreon supporters this month: Mathieu B., Justin G., Tim F., Helge B., Alan M., Tim R., Ray S., Michael C., Bill S., Lars H., David C., Silvan W., David B., Kevin O., Justin R., Jessica K., James L., and Michael Z.! Music by Jason Grady and Nick Bain. Thanks to WCBE Radio for hosting the recording session, Greg Mobius for producing, and Cathy Rinella for editing. Hosted by Paul M. Sutter, astrophysicist at The Ohio State University, Chief Scientist at COSI Science Center, and the one and only Agent to the Stars Category

Artist’s illustration of two merging neutron stars. The narrow beams represent the gamma-ray burst while the rippling spacetime grid indicates the isotropic gravitational waves that characterize the merger. Credit: National Science Foundation/LIGO/Sonoma State University/A. Simonnet

New Gravitational Waves Detected From Four More Black Hole Mergers.
Total Detections up to 11 Now

On February 11th, 2016, scientists at the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) made history when they announced the first-ever detection of gravitational waves (GWs). Since that time, multiple detections have taken place and scientific collaborations between observatories – like Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo – are allowing for unprecedented levels of sensitivity and data sharing.

Artist’s impression of two merging black holes, which has been theorized to be a source of gravitational waves. Credit: Bohn, Throwe, Hébert, Henriksson, Bunandar, Taylor, Scheel/SXS

Artist’s illustration of two merging neutron stars. Credit: National Science Foundation/LIGO/Sonoma State University/A. Simonnet

Artist’s impression of merging binary black holes. Credit: LIGO/A. Simonnet.

Current and planned gravitational wave (GW) observatories around the world.(as of December, 2018) Credit: LIGO-Caltech

Articles



A 2 per cent Hubble constant measurement from standard sirens within 5 years (PDF)"

GWTC-1: A Gravitational-Wave Transient Catalog of Compact Binary Mergers Observed by LIGO and Virgo during the First and Second Observing Runs (pdf)


Click here to return to top of page


A SINGLE WAVE, BIGGER THAN THE MILKY WAY, IS ROLLING THROUGH THE PERSUS GALAXY CLUSTER


NASA has discovered a wave of hot gas larger than the Milky Way rolling through the Perseus galaxy cluster. This X-ray image is the result of 16 days of observing with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The image was filtered to make details easier to see.Credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center/Stephen Walker et al.

X-ray 'Tsunami' Found in Perseus Galaxy Cluster


Published on May 2, 2017 Combining data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory with radio observations and computer simulations, scientists have found a vast wave of hot gas in the nearby Perseus galaxy cluster. Spanning some 200,000 light-years, the wave is about twice the size of our own Milky Way galaxy.

This Hubble image shows NGC 1275, the Super-Massive Black Hole at the center of the Perseus cluster. NGC 1275 could not have been responsible for the “bay” feature found in Perseus. Image: By NASA, ESA, and the Hubble Heritage (STScI/AURA)-ESA/Hubble Collaboration – Public Domain

This alternate image of the Perseus galaxy cluster shows the wave at the 7 o’clock position. Image: NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center/Stephen Walker et al.


Click here to return to top of page


How Isotropic is the Universe?


TURNS OUT THERE IS NO ACTUAL LOOKING UP


Is there an up out there? New research says no. Out there in the universe, one direction is much like another.
Credit: NASA; ESA; Z. Levay and R. van der Marel, STScI; T. Hallas; and A. Mellinger

The cosmic microwave background radiation, enhanced to show the anomalies.
Credit: ESA and the Planck Collaboration

Timeline of the Big Bang and the expansion of the Universe. Credit: NASA

A “now and then” all-sky image captured by the Planck spacecraft,
simultaneously showing our galaxy and its structures seen as in recent history; and ‘then’
– the red afterglow of the Big Bang seen as it was just 380,000 years later.
Credit: ESA

And be sure to check out this animation produced by the UCL team, which illustrates the Planck mission’s CMB data:


Further Reading: arXiv, Science


Click here to return to top of page


GAMMA RAY BURSTS!!


PHYSICISTS HAVE CREATED AN ARTIFICIAL GAMMA RAY BURST IN THE LAB


Artist's impression of a gamma-ray burst, showing the two intense beams of relativistic matter emitted by the black hole. To be visible from Earth, the beams must be pointing directly towards us. Credit : NASA/Swift/Mary Pat Hrybyk-Keith and John Jones

Artist’s impression of a gamma ray burst in space. Credit: ESO/A. Roquette

Artist’s impression of a supermassive black hole emitting powerful jets of charged particles. Credit: Robin Dienel/Carnegie Institution for Science


Click here to return to top of page


Theories of Cosmology


BIG BANG THEORY: EVOLUTION OF OUR UNIVERSE 17 Dec , 2015 by Matt Williams


How was our Universe created? How did it come to be the seemingly infinite place we know of today?
And what will become of it, ages from now? These are the questions that have been puzzling philosophers
and scholars since the beginning the time, and led to some pretty wild and interesting theories.
Today, the consensus among scientists, astronomers and cosmologists is that the Universe as we know it was created
in a massive explosion that not only created the majority of matter, but the physical laws that govern our ever-expanding cosmos.
This is known as The Big Bang Theory.

Inflation Epoch With the creation of the first fundamental forces of the universe, the Inflation Epoch began,
lasting from 10-32 seconds in Planck time to an unknown point. Most cosmological models suggest that the Universe
at this point was filled homogeneously with a high-energy density, and that the incredibly high temperatures and pressure
gave rise to rapid expansion and cooling.


The history of the Universe, from the Big Bang to the current epoch. Credit: bicepkeck.org

Is everything we know about the universe's expansion WRONG?
Measurements suggest it's growing faster than any theory can explain:
  • Researchers looked at 'standard candles' in nearby galaxies
  • These are stars of known brightness, used to measure their distances
  • Number doesn't fit with measurements of radiation left from Big Bang
  • If both are correct, it means something is missing in model of cosmology
Read more: Follow us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook


Diagram showing the Lambda-CBR universe, from the Big Bang to the the current era. Credit: Alex Mittelmann/Coldcreation

The universe has been expanding since the Big Bang kickstarted the growth about 13.8 billion years ago.
And it is said to be getting faster in its acceleration as it gets bigger (illustrated).
Dark matter's gravity slows cosmic expansion, while dark energy pushes in the opposite direction and causes it to accelerate Read more: Follow us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook

Data from stars in nearby galaxies such as M101 (pictured) has allowed researchers to complete the most precise measurement
ever made of how quickly the universe is expanding. They found it is expanding 8 per cent faster than predicted, which puts into
question our accepted model of the evolution of the universe
Read more Follow us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook

THE HUBBLE CONSTANT JUST GOT CONSTANTIER


A team of astronomers using the Hubble Space Telescope have found that the current rate of expansion of the Universe
could be almost 10 percent faster than previously thought.
Image: NASA, ESA, A. Feild (STScI), and A. Riess (STScI/JHU)

The researchers looked at a larger sample of stars than before in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) pictured, the third closest galaxy to the Milky Way, to determine how fast the universe is expanding. They measured the value with an uncertainty of 2.4 per cent, down from the previous best result of 3.3 per cent COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND read more Follow us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook

Much of what scientists know about dark matter and dark energy comes from radiation left behind from the Big Bang,
called cosmic microwave background (CMB) (pictured). The most exhaustive study of CMB - a portrait of the universe at 400,000 years of age
- was done in recent years by Esa's Planck observatory Read more: Follow us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook

Time had a beginning but whether it will have an end depends on the nature of the dark energy that is causing it to expand at an accelerating rate.
The rate of this expansion may eventually tear the universe apart, forcing it to end in a Big Rip
Read more: Follow us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook


The Largest Black Holes in the Universe


Published on Sep 26, 2012 Our Milky Way may harbor millions of black holes... the ultra dense remnants of dead stars. But now, in the universe far beyond our galaxy,
there's evidence of something far more ominous. A breed of black holes that has reached incomprehensible size and destructive power.
Just how large, and violent, and strange can they get?
A new era in astronomy has revealed a universe long hidden to us. High-tech instruments sent into space have been tuned to sense
high-energy forms of light -- x-rays and gamma rays -- that are invisible to our eyes and do not penetrate our atmosphere.
On the ground, precision telescopes are equipped with technologies that allow them to cancel out the blurring effects of the atmosphere.
They are peering into the far reaches of the universe, and into distant caldrons of light and energy. In some distant galaxies,
astronomers are now finding evidence that space and time are being shattered by eruptions so vast they boggle the mind.
We are just beginning to understand the impact these outbursts have had on the universe: On the shapes of galaxies,
the spread of elements that make up stars and planets, and ultimately the very existence of Earth. The discovery of what causes
these eruptions has led to a new understanding of cosmic history. Back in 1995, the Hubble space telescope was enlisted to begin
filling in the details of that history. Astronomers selected tiny regions in the sky, between the stars. For days at a time,
they focused Hubble's gaze on remote regions of the universe.
These hubble Deep Field images offered incredibly clear views of the cosmos in its infancy. What drew astronomers'
attention were the tiniest galaxies, covering only a few pixels on Hubble's detector. Most of them do not have the grand spiral
or elliptical shapes of large galaxies we see close to us today.
Instead, they are irregular, scrappy collections of stars. The Hubble Deep Field confirmed a long-standing idea that the
universe must have evolved in a series of building blocks, with small galaxies gradually merging and assembling into larger ones.
Partner rating No mature content Show Cosmic Journeys Season 1 Episode 5 Release date 9/26/12 Running time 24:59 Director Thomas Lucas Producer Thomas Lucas Category Science & Tech Documentary Nature License Standard YouTube License Source videos View attributions

SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES IN DISTANT GALAXIES ARE MYSTERIOUSLY ALIGNED


A team of astronomers from South Africa have noticed a series of supermassive black holes in distant galaxies
that are all spinning in the same direction.
Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Artist’s impression of a supermassive black hole. Credit: NRAO

By studying the large-scale spin distribution of SMBHs could tell us much about the matter
fluctuations that gave rise to the large-scale structure of the Universe.
Credit: Volker Springel/Virgo Consortium.

Graphic representation of data obtained by the Baryon Oscillation Spectrographic Survey (BOSS)
showing redshift of galaxies over an 11 billion years period.
Credit: SDSS-III

JAPANESE 3D GALAXY MAP CONFIRMS EINSTEIN WAS ONE SMART DUDE


An international team of researchers have produced the largest 3-D map of the universe to date,(May 2016)
which validates Einstein's theory of General Relativity.
Credit: NAOJ/CFHT/ SDSS

Experimental results looking at the expansion of the universe, in comparison to that predicted by Einstein’s theory of general relativity
in green. Credit: Kavli IPMU/Okumura et al.

First Version of a 3D Map of Universe from the FastSound Project


Published on Aug 8, 2013 This is the first version of a 3D map of the Universe from the FastSound Project,
which is surveying galaxies in the Universe over nine billion light years away.
Using Subaru Telescope's new Fiber Multi-Object Spectrograph (FMOS), the map includes 1,100 galaxies
and shows the large-scale structure of the Universe about 4.7 billion years after the Big Bang. M
The area covers 2.5 times 3 degrees of the sky. The colors of the galaxies indicate their star formation rate,
i.e., the total mass of stars produced in a galaxy every year. The gradation in background color represents the number density
of galaxies; the underlying mass distribution (which is dominated by dark matter) would look like this if we could see it.
The project is ongoing and will eventually include 5,000 galaxies over ten billion light years away.
For more information on the 3D map and FastSound Project Credit: NAOJ with part of the data provided by CFHT, SDSS Related Article: "Constructing a 3D Map of the Large-Scale Structure of the Universe" Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License

Astronomers Detected Clear Sign of Oxygen In Galaxy 13.1 Billion Light Years Away from Earth


This is an artist's concept of SXDF-NB1006-2. Many young bright stars are located in the galaxy and ionize the gas
inside and around the galaxy. Green color indicates the ionized oxygen detected by ALMA, whereas purple shows the distribution
of ionized hydrogen detected by the Subaru Telescope (Photo : NAOJ) A team of international researchers have detected gas containing clear signs of oxygen in one of the most distant galaxies
13.1 billion light years away from Earth.
The discovery, published in the journal Science, could help the researchers understand how young stars ionized oxygen
and other heavier elements during the cosmic reionisation period 150 million years after the big bang.

GALAXIES SWELL DUE TO EXPLOSIVE ACTION OF NEW STARS


Artist’s impression of a disk galaxy transforming in to an elliptical galaxy. Stars are actively formed in the massive reservoir of dust and gas at the center of the galaxy. Credit: NAOJ

Evolution diagram of a galaxy. First the galaxy is dominated by the disk component (left) but active star formation occurs in the huge dust and gas cloud at the center of the galaxy (center). Then the galaxy is dominated by the stellar bulge and becomes an elliptical (or lenticular) galaxy. Credit: NAOJ

Observation images of a galaxy 11 billion light-years away. Credit: ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO), NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, Tadaki et al.


Click here to return to top of page


Our Far Future



Click here to return to top of page