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Introduction to the Frontier Fields Initiative!!!

Albert Einstein

Nikola Tesla

Capturing the birth of the universe: Model simulates the 'cosmic soup' of particles that appeared seconds after the Big Bang


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How the universe began is a complex question involving study by vastly different branches of physics including particle physics,
nuclear physics and cosmology. A team in the US has brought together all of these disciplines to create a computer model simulating
the first few minutes after the Big Bang
A few seconds after the Big Bang, the universe was made of a thick, 10-billion degree 'cosmic soup' of subatomic particles.
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The Frontier Fields concept of the Milky Way

Our galaxy (pictured) is 13.2 billion years old - less than a billion years younger than the universe itself.
A few seconds after the Big Bang, 14 billion years ago, the universe was made of a thick, 10-billion degree 'cosmic soup' of subatomic particles
Read more: Follow us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook


Image showing nearly 50,000 galaxies in the nearby universe detected by the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) in infrared light. Credit: 2MASS/ T. H. Jarrett/J. Carpenter/R. Hurt

Illustration of the Canis Dwarf Galaxy and its associated tidal (shown in red) in relation to our Milky Way. Credit: R. Ibata (Strasbourg Observatory, ULP) et al./2MASS/NASA

Images of a few examples of merging galaxies taken by the Hubble Space Telescope. Credit: NASA/ESA/STScI/A. Evans/NRAO/Caltech

An artist depicts the incredibly powerful flare that erupted from the red dwarf star EV Lacertae. Credit: Casey Reed/NASA

The Frontier Fields Main Page!!

The Main page For the Frontier Fields Initiative!!

The International Astronomical Union!!

The Main page For The International Astronomical Union

A new site from Cornell university Numerical simulation of Black Holes!

Black Hole Infographic

Black Holes Explained – From Birth to Death

Gravity at the Macro Level
Black Holes Explained – From Birth to Death

Merging Black Holes
Found on This Black Hole GIF Is Utterly Mesmerizing by Lisette Mejia

Gravity at the Sub Atomic Level
Theorotical dwscription of Gravity at he Planck Level(10 exp -33 meters)

Fascinating animated image representing the idea of coiled spatial dimensions
predicted by super-string theory. Tiny spatial dimensions at every point in 3-space (3D-space depicted by the grid)
would be coiled in a "Calabi-Yau" manifold. Dimensions inside the manifolds could be connected across 3D space,
though spatially separate in the sense that we are familiar with.


Hubble Images

THe Hubble Deep Field Video

Uploaded on Dec 7, 2006
This is the latest incarnation of the HDF video. The narration has been edited to include research from a paper
in Physical Review Letters (2004) which puts the size of the universe at 46.5 billion light years, not 78 billion as I originally stated.
In the video narration, I round that value up to 47 billion light years. I also took out Numa Numa guy.
"Shine On You Crazy Diamond (Parts 1 - 5) [Edit] (2011 - Remaster)" by Pink Floyd (AmazonMP3)
Pink Floyd
Science & Technology
Standard YouTube License

Hubble Sees the 'Teenage Years' of Quasars

Space Fan Hangout #4: CLASH Finds the Most Distant Galaxy

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Gravitional Lensing

Gravitional Lensing explained

Published on Jan 26, 2017 Objects with large masses such as galaxies or clusters of galaxies warp the spacetime surrounding them in such a way that they can create multiple images of background objects. This effect is called strong gravitational lensing. More information and download options: Credit: ESA/Hubble, NASA Category Science & Technology License Creative Commons Attribution license (reuse allowed)

The video above illustrates the varying light-travel times of the distant supernova
as the light traverses around the lumpy space within the galaxy cluster MACS J1149.
Credit: NASA, ESA, Ann Field and G. Bacon (STScI).

Gravitional Lensing caused by Galaxies

What is Gravitational Lensing?

Published on Feb 5, 2015 Gravity's a funny thing. Not only does it tug away at you, me, planets, moons and stars, but it can even bend light itself.
And once you're bending light, well, you've got yourself a telescope. Support us More stories Follow us on Twitter: @universetoday Follow us on Tumblr: Like us on Facebook: Google+ - Instagram Team: Fraser Cain - @fcain Jason Harmer - @jasoncharmer Susie Murph - @susiemmurph Brian Koberlein - @briankoberlein Chad Weber - Kevin Gill - @kevinmgill Created by: Fraser Cain and Jason Harmer Edited by: Chad Weber Music: Left Spine Down - “X-Ray”

Examples of Gravitional Lensing

An Example of Gravitional Lensing


ALMA_StrongLensing_SDP81_NRAO from NRAO Outreach on Vimeo.

The large blue light is a lensing galaxy in the foreground, called SDP81, about 4 billion light years away.
The red arcs are the distorted image of a more distant galaxy, about 12 billion light years away.
By analyzing small distortions in the red, distant galaxy, astronomers have determined that a dwarf dark galaxy,
represented by the white dot in the lower left, is bound to SDP81.
The image is a composite from ALMA and the Hubble.
Image: Y. Hezaveh, Stanford Univ./ALMA (NRAO/ESO/NAOJ)/NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope

The "Canarias Einstein Ring." The green-blue ring is the source galaxy, the red one in the middle is the lens galaxy.
The lens galaxy has such strong gravity, that it distorts the light from the source galaxy into a ring.
Because the two galaxies are aligned, the source galaxy appears almost circular.
Image: This composite image is made up from several images taken with the DECam camera on the Blanco 4m telescope
at the Cerro Tololo Observatory in Chile.

Another Einstein Ring. This one is named LRG 3-757. This one was discovered by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey,
but this image was captured by Hubble’s Wide Field Camera 3. Image: NASA/Hubble/ESA

Ancient eye in the sky

July 26, 2016 Source: National Astronomical Observatory of Japan Summary: Light from a distant galaxy can be strongly bent by the gravitational influence of a foreground galaxy.
That effect is called strong gravitational lensing. Normally a single galaxy is lensed at a time.
The same foreground galaxy can – in theory – simultaneously lens multiple background galaxies.
Although extremely rare, such a lens system offers a unique opportunity to probe the fundamental
physics of galaxies and add to our understanding of cosmology. One such lens system has recently been discovered
and the discovery was made not in an astronomer’s office, but in a classroom. It has been dubbed the Eye of Horus,
and this ancient eye in the sky may help us understand the history of the universe.

Eye of Horus in pseudo color. Enlarged image to the right (field of view of 23 arcseconds x 19 arcseconds)
show two arcs/rings with different colors. The inner arc has a reddish hue, while the outer arc has a blue tint.
There are also the lensed images of the background galaxies which are originally the same galaxies as the inner and the outer arcs.
The yellow-ish object at the center is a massive galaxy at z = 0.79 (distance 7 billion light years),
which bends the light from the two background galaxies. Credit: NAOJ

The ALMA Observatory

ALMA will consist of 66 individual antennae like these when it is complete.
The facility is located in the Atacama Desert in Chile, at 5,000 meters above sea level.
Credit: ALMA (ESO / NAOJ / NRAO)

A Giant Lensed Galaxy Arc

The view of a distant galaxy (nearly 10 billion light-years away) has been warped into a nearly 90-degree arc
of light by the gravity of the galaxy cluster known as RCS2 032727-132623 (about 5 billion light-years away).
Credit: NASA, ESA, J. Rigby (NASA GSFC), K. Sharon (KICP, U Chicago), and M. Gladders and E. Wuyts (U Chicago)

Chance microlensing events enable astronomers to probe distant quasars

Artist’s rendering of ULAS J1120+0641, a very distant quasar powered by a black hole with a mass two billion times
that of the Sun. Natural gravitational ‘microlenses’ can provide a way to probe these objects, and now a team of astronomers
have seen hints of quasar brightness changes that hint at their presence.
Image credit: ESO/M. Kornmesser.


Hubble image showing the white dwarf star Stein 2051B and the smaller star below it appear to be close neighbors. Credit: NASA/ESA/K. Sahu (STScI)

Illustration revealing how the gravity of a white dwarf star warps space and bends the light of a distant star behind it. Credits: NASA, ESA, and A. Feild (STScI)

Animation showing the white dwarf star Stein 2051B as it passes in front of a distant background star. Credit: NASA

Artist’s impression of the binary pair made up by a white dwarf star in orbit around Sirius (a white supergiant). Credit: NASA, ESA and G. Bacon (STScI)

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Cluster ABEL2256

�Color� radio image of galactic cluster Abell 2256. Credit: Owen et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF.
Even though it�s said that the average human eye can discern from seven to ten million different values
and hues of colors, in reality our eyes are sensitive to only a very small section of the entire electromagnetic spectrum, diverse segments of the EM spectrum, from minuscule yet powerful gamma rays to incredibly long, low-frequency radio waves.

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The Hubble Deep Field Abell 2744 Cluster

Galaxy cluster Abell 2744, with multiple images of individual galaxies marked.
These multiple images are produced by the cluster�s gravitational lens.

The Hubble Deep Field Abel 2744 Cluster(un marked also known as Pandoras Box)

Peering deep into the early universe, this picturesque parallel field observation from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope
reveals thousands of colorful galaxies swimming in the inky blackness of space. A few foreground stars from our own galaxy,
the Milky Way, are also visible. In October 2013 Hubble’s Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) and Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) began observing this portion of sky
as part of the Frontier Fields program. This spectacular skyscape was captured during the study of the giant galaxy cluster Abell 2744,
otherwise known as Pandora’s Box. While one of Hubble’s cameras concentrated on Abell 2744, the other camera viewed this
adjacent patch of sky near to the cluster. Containing countless galaxies of various ages, shapes and sizes, this parallel field observation is nearly as deep
as the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field. In addition to showcasing the stunning beauty of the deep universe in incredible detail,
this parallel field — when compared to other deep fields — will help astronomers understand how similar the universe looks in different directions.
Image credit: NASA, ESA and the HST Frontier Fields team (STScI), Acknowledgement: Judy Schmidt Text credit: European Space Agency Last Updated: March 11, 2016 Editor: Ashley Morrow

Frontier Fields Cluster Abell 2744 Interactive Viewer

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Hubble Deep Field Abel 1689 Cluster

Dark matter in the massive galaxy cluster Abell 1689, located 2.2 billion light-years away. The cluster contains about 1,000 galaxies
and trillions of stars. Hubble cannot see the dark matter directly. Astronomers inferred its location by analyzing the effect of gravitational lensing,
where light from galaxies behind Abell 1689 is distorted by intervening matter within the cluster. Credit: NASA, ESA, and Z. Levay (STScI)

Dark Matter in the Hubble Deep Field Abel 1689 Cluster

This Hubble image shows the distribution of dark matter in the center of the giant galaxy cluster Abell 1689,
containing about 1,000 galaxies and trillions of stars. Researchers used the observed positions of
135 lensed images of 42 background galaxies to calculate the location and amount of dark matter in the cluster.
They superimposed a map of these inferred dark matter concentrations, tinted blue, on an image of the cluster.
The greastest concentration of dark matter is in the cluster’s center.
Credit: NASA, ESA, D. Coe, N. Benitez , T. Broadhurst

RAdio Telescope reveals hundreds of Hidden galaxies behind the Milky Way GAlaxy

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An explosive quartet
Hubble sees multiple images of a supernova for the very first time 5 March 2015

Hubble sees multiple images of a supernova for the very first time! Galaxy cluster MACS j1149.5+223 and a supernova four times over An explosive quartet!: This image shows the huge galaxy cluster MACS J1149+2223,
whose light took over 5 billion years to reach us. The huge mass of the cluster and one of the galaxies within
it is bending the light from a supernova behind them and creating four separate images of it.
The light has been magnified and distorted due to gravitational lensing and as a result the images are arranged around
the elliptical galaxy in a formation known as an Einstein cross. A close-up of the Einstein cross is shown in the inset.

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Cluster MACJ0717

Disco lights from a galaxy cluster seen with multi-spectral eyes

MACS J0717 is one of the most complex galaxy clusters known, the result of four galaxy clusters colliding.
It is located about 5.4 billion light-years away from Earth, in the constellation of Auriga (The Charioteer).
Image credit: NASA, ESA, CXC, NRAO/AUI/NSF, STScI, and R. van Weeren (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics).
Acknowledgment: NASA, ESA, and J. Lotz (STScI), and the HFF team.

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Cluster MACJ0416

Hubble Looks Into a Cosmic Kaleidoscope

At first glance, this cosmic kaleidoscope of purple, blue and pink offers a strikingly beautiful —
and serene — snapshot of the cosmos. However, this multi-colored haze actually marks the site of two colliding galaxy clusters,
forming a single object known as MACS J0416.1-2403 (or MACS J0416 for short).
MACS J0416 is located about 4.3 billion light-years from Earth, in the constellation of Eridanus.
This image of the cluster combines data from three different telescopes: the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope
(showing the galaxies and stars), the NASA Chandra X-ray Observatory (diffuse emission in blue),
and the NRAO Jansky Very Large Array (diffuse emission in pink). Each telescope shows a different element of the cluster,
allowing astronomers to study MACS J0416 in detail.

Caption: Multiply lensed galaxies are marked in this image of MACS J0416.1-2403.
The brown lines create a contour map of mass concentrations according to the best-fit strong lensing model.
Multiple images of the same galaxy are indicated by the same number to the left of the decimal point.
The digit to the right of the decimal counts off the number of multiples. The most secure candidates are shown in blue;
the less secure are portrayed in magenta.

Distibution of Dark Matter In MACSJ0416

An image of the distribution of dark matter in MACSJ0416.

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The ABELL 370 Cluster

The massive galaxy cluster Abell 370 as seen by Hubble Space Telescope in the final Frontier Fields observations.

The locations of Hubble’s observations of the Abell 370 galaxy cluster (right) and the adjacent parallel field (left) are plotted over a Digitized Sky Survey (DSS) image. The blue boxes outline the regions of Hubble’s visible-light observations, and the red boxes indicate areas of Hubble’s infrared-light observations. A scale bar in the lower left corner of the image indicates the size of the image on the sky. The scale bar corresponds to about 1/30th the apparent width of the full moon as seen from Earth. Astronomers refer to this unit of measurement as one arcminute, denoted as 1′.

The “parallel field” shows a wide assortment of galaxies stretching back through time and space.

Location of the Abell 370 galaxy cluster field and its parallel field in the constellation Cetus. Credit—Frontier Field location: STScI; Enlarged constellation map: International Astronomical Union (IAU)

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Astronomers Set a New Galaxy Distance Record

Image: Distant Galaxy EGS-zs8-1 in CANDELS Field This is a Hubble Space Telescope image of the farthest spectroscopically confirmed galaxy observed to date (May 5, 2015).
It was identified in this Hubble image of a field of galaxies in the CANDELS survey (Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey).
NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope also observed the unique galaxy. The W. M. Keck Observatory was used to obtain a spectroscopic redshift (z=7.7),
extending the previous redshift record

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Astronomers Discover First Mulitiple-image Gravitationally-lensed Supernova

The four dots centered on the bright elliptical galaxy at top are multiple images of supernova SN Refsdal
taken with the Hubble Space Telescope between November 10-20, 2014. In the bottom image, the galaxy has been digitally removed
to show only the supernova images, labeled S1 through S4. The line segments are diffraction spikes from a nearby star.
Credit: P.L. Kelly/GLASS/Hubble Frontier Fields
How about four supernovae for the price of one? Using the Hubble Space Telescope,
Dr. Patrick Kelly of the University of California-Berkeley along with the GLASS
(Grism Lens Amplified Survey from Space) and Hubble Frontier Fields teams, discovered a remote supernova lensed
into four copies of itself by the powerful gravity of a foreground galaxy cluster. Dubbed SN Refsdal, the object was discovered in the rich galaxy cluster MACS J1149.6+2223 five billion light years from Earth in the constellation Leo.


Artist's drawing a black hole (Cygnus X-1) as it pulls matter from a blue star beside it.
Credits: NASA/CXC/M.Weiss

Artist’s impression of the star in its multi-million year long and previously unobservable phase as a large, red supergiant.
Credit: CAASTRO / Mats Björklund (Magipics)

Artistic representation of the material around the supernova 1987A.
Credit: ESO/L.

The Large Binocular Telescope, showing the two imaging mirrors. Credit: NASA

Future missions, like the James Webb Space Telescope,
will be able to observe possible failed supernovae/blackholes to confirm their existence.
Credit: NASA/JPL


To celebrate 30 years since Supernova 1987A was spotted, a new composite image shows the most recent images of the object, and contains X-rays from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory (blue), visible light data from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (green), and submillimeter wavelength data from the international Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) telescope in Chile (red).

This new image of the supernova remnant SN 1987A was taken by the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope in January 2017 using its Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3). Credit: NASA, ESA, and R. Kirshner (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation) and P. Challis (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics)

Published on Feb 24, 2017 This time-lapse video sequence of Hubble Space Telescope images reveals dramatic changes in a ring of material around the exploded star Supernova 1987A. The images, taken from 1994 to 2016, show the effects of a shock wave from the supernova blast smashing into the ring. The ring begins to brighten as the shock wave hits it. The ring is about one light-year across. Discovered in 1987, Supernova 1987A is the closest observed supernova to Earth since 1604. The exploded star resides 163,000 light-years away in the Large Magellanic Cloud, a satellite galaxy of our Milky Way. Credit: NASA, ESA, and R. Kirshner (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation), and P. Challis (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics) Read more: Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License

This scientific visualization, using data from a computer simulation, shows Supernova 1987A, as the luminous ring of material we see today. Credits: NASA, ESA, and F. Summers and G. Bacon (STScI); Simulation Credit: S. Orlando (INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo)

This montage shows the evolution of the supernova SN 1987A between 1994 and 2016, as seen by the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. Credit: NASA, ESA, and R. Kirshner (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation) and P. Challis (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics)

A Quick Look at Supernova 1987A

Published on Feb 24, 2017 On February 24, 1987, astronomers in the southern hemisphere saw a supernova in the Large Magellanic Cloud. This new object was dubbed “Supernova 1987A” and was the brightest stellar explosion seen in over four centuries. Chandra has observed Supernova 1987A many times and the X-ray data reveal important information about this object. X-rays from Chandra have shown the expanding blast wave from the original explosion slamming into a ring of material expelled by the star before it exploded. The latest Chandra data reveal the blast wave has moved beyond the ring into a region that astronomers do not know much about. These observations can help astronomers learn how supernovas impact their environments and affect future generations of stars and planets. Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License

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This very detailed simulation of large scale structure was created as part of the Illustris simulation.
The distribution of dark matter is shown in blue and the gas distribution in orange.
This simulation is for the current state of the Universe and is centered on a massive galaxy cluster.
The region shown is about 300 million light-years across.

The Illustris project Home page

This is a map of the observable Universe from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Orange areas show higher density of galaxy clusters and filaments. Image: Sloan Digital Sky Survey.

New Simulation Models Galaxies Like Never Before

Zooming into an EAGLE galaxy. Credit: EAGLE Project Consortium/Schaye et al.
Astronomy is, by definition, intangible. Traditional laboratory-style experiments that utilize variables and control groups
are of little use to the scientists who spend their careers analyzing the intricacies our Universe.
Instead, astronomers rely on simulations � robust, mathematically-driven facsimiles of the cosmos �
to investigate the long-term evolution of objects like stars, black holes, and galaxies

How We�ve �Morphed� From �Starry Night� to Planck�s View of the BICEP2 Field
by Tim Reyes on February 2, 2015

Vincent Van Gogh�s Starry Night is a finished work of art known to billions.
After 13.8 billion years, the Universe remains an unfinished work.
Planck Observatory data revealing the Milky Way�s magnetic field is morphed into a Starry Night of June 1889.
(Credits: Vincent Van Gogh, ESA, Illustration � J.Schmidt, T.Reyes)
From the vantage point of a window in an insane asylum, Vincent van Gogh painted one of the most noted and valued artistic works in human history.
It was the summer of 1889. With his post-impressionist paint strokes, Starry Night depicts a night sky before sunrise that undulates,
flows and is never settled. Scientific discoveries are revealing a Cosmos with such characteristics.


A section of the virtual universe, a billion light years across, showing how dark matter is distributed in space, with dark matter halos the yellow clumps, interconnected by dark filaments. Cosmic void, shown as the white areas, are the lowest density regions in the Universe. Credit: Joachim Stadel, UZH

How Do We Know Dark Matter Exists?

Published on Mar 12, 2015 Dark matter can't be seen or detected by any of our instruments, so how do we know it really exists? More stories at: Follow us on Twitter: @universetoday Follow us on Tumblr: Like us on Facebook: Google+ - Instagram - Team: Fraser Cain - @fcain Jason Harmer - @jasoncharmer Susie Murph - @susiemmurph Brian Koberlein - @briankoberlein Chad Weber - Kevin Gill - @kevinmgill Created by: Fraser Cain and Jason Harmer Edited by: Chad Weber Music: Left Spine Down - “X-Ray”

Artist impression of the Euclid probe, which is set to launch in 2020. Credit: ESA

Diagram showing the Lambda-CBR universe, from the Big Bang to the the current era. Credit: Alex Mittelmann/Coldcreation

The universe has been expanding since the Big Bang kickstarted the growth about 13.8 billion years ago.
And it is said to be getting faster in its acceleration as it gets bigger (illustrated).
Dark matter's gravity slows cosmic expansion, while dark energy pushes in the opposite direction and causes it to accelerate Read more: Follow us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook

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Astronomers have gone so far as to map where most of the dark matter is in the universe.
Here�s a graphic showing the distribution of dark matter in the universe.

Dark Matter/Dark Energy Infographic

This three-dimensional map offers a first look at the web-like large-scale distribution of dark matter.
The map reveals a loose network of dark matter filaments, gradually collapsing under the relentless pull of gravity,
and growing clumpier over time. Credit: NASA, ESA, and R. Massey (California Institute of Technology)

An Echo of the Big Bang

The anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as observed by Planck.
The CMB is a snapshot of the oldest light in our Universe, imprinted on the sky when the Universe was just 380 000 years old.
It shows tiny temperature fluctuations that correspond to regions of slightly different densities, representing the seeds of all future structure:
the stars and galaxies of today.
ESA and the Planck Collaboration - D. Ducros

A flat map of the CMB

Fluctuation anomalies in the cosmic microwave background. Credit: V. G. Gurzadyan and R. Penrose.

Such a message, Penrose argues, could be encoded in the cosmic microwave background (CMB).
While the CMB is fairly uniform, it does have small fluctuations in temperature.
The scale at which these fluctuations occur tells us about the overall structure of our Universe.
But there are also regions where the fluctuations are more extreme than we’d expect. These anomalies aren’t highly unusual,
but they are interesting enough that some have speculated they might be caused by another Universe.

Galaxy M101, one of the galaxies in the study. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech


Image from Dark Universe, showing the distribution of dark matter in the universe.
Credit: AMNH

According to supersymmetry, WIMPs annihilate each other, creating a cascade of particles and radiation
that includes medium-energy gamma rays.
Credit: Sky & Telescope / Gregg Dinderman. Credit: AMNH

Massive 3D map of faraway galaxies to aid search for dark energy
"Using this map we will now be able to make the most accurate possible measurements of dark energy,"
said researcher Florian Beutler.
By Brooks Hays | July 14, 2016 at 3:02 PM

A small sliver of the 3D map of the distant universe. Each dot represents a galaxy six billion years into the past.
The color indicates the galaxy's distance from Earth.
Photo by Daniel Eisenstein/SDSS-III


This false color, composite image shows two galaxies, white, connected by a bridge of dark matter, red. The two galaxies are about 40 light years apart. Image: S. Epps & M. Hudson / University of Waterloo

The Dark Energy Survey!

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Our Galactic Center

Mystery Object Appears Near Milky Way's Monster Black Hole
by Calla Cofield, Staff Writer
December 30, 2014 01:36pm ET

A computer simulation shows the G2 gas cloud's encounter with the supermassive black hole Sagittarius A*
at the center of the Milky Way, as well as the paths of the many other objects that orbit the black hole.
Credit: SO/MPE/Marc Schartmann 3

A Star Is About To Go 2.5% The Speed Of Light Past A Black Hole

Successful first observations of galactic centre with GRAVITY instrument

This artist’s impression shows stars orbiting the supermassive black hole at the centre of the Milky Way.
In 2018 one of these stars, S2, will pass very close to the black hole and this event will be the best opportunity
to study the effects of very strong gravity and test the predictions of Einstein’s general relativity in the near future.
The GRAVITY instrument on the ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer is the most powerful tool for measuring the positions
of these stars in existence and it was successfully tested on the S2 star in the summer of 2016.
The orbit of S2 is shown in red and the position of the central black hole is marked with a red cross.
Illustration credit: ESO/L. Calçada.

Artist’s representation of a black hole. Credit: XMM-Newton, ESA, NASA

Astronomers find source of most powerful cosmic rays
Astronomers have traced the source of the most energetic cosmic radiation to the center of the Milky Way.
By University of the Witwatersand, Johannesburg, South Africa | Published: Thursday, March 17, 2016

In yet another discovery emanating from detailed analysis of the latest data from the
High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) observatory in Namibia, an international team of scientists,
including astrophysicists from the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, announced they have found
the most powerful source of cosmic radiation at the center of our galaxy.


Illustration of the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way. Credit: NRAO/AUI/NSF

Simulated view of a black hole. Credit: Bronzwaer/Davelaar/Moscibrodzka/Falcke/Radboud University

Combined image of Sagittarius A shown in x-ray (blue) and infrared (red), provided by the Chandra Observatory and the Hubble Space Telescope. Credit: X-ray: NASA/UMass/D.Wang et al., IR: NASA/STScI


This artist's impression shows a star crossing the event horizon of a supermassive black hole located in the center of a galaxy. The black hole is so large and massive that tidal effects on the star are negligible, and the star is swallowed whole. Image: Mark A. Garlick/CfA

This artist's impression shows a star crossing the event horizon of a supermassive black hole located in the center of a galaxy. The black hole is so large and massive that tidal effects on the star are negligible, and the star is swallowed whole. Image: Mark A. Garlick/CfA

This is the first in a sequence of two artist’s impressions that shows a huge, massive sphere in the center of a galaxy, rather than a supermassive black hole. Here a star moves towards and then smashes into the hard surface of the sphere, flinging out debris. The impact heats up the site of the collision. Image:Mark A. Garlick/CfA

In this second artist’s impression a huge sphere in the center of a galaxy is shown after a star has collided with it. Enormous amounts of heat and a dramatic increase in the brightness of the sphere are generated by this event. The lack of observation of such flares from the center of galaxies means that this hypothetical scenario is almost completely ruled out. Image: Mark A. Garlick/CfA

What Would A Black Hole Look Like? Fraser Cain

Published on Oct 20, 2014 If you could see a black hole with your own eyeballs, what would you see? More stories at: Follow us on Twitter: @universetoday Follow us on Tumblr: Like us on Facebook: Google+ - Instagram - Team: Fraser Cain - @fcain Jason Harmer - @jasoncharmer Susie Murph - @susiemmurph Brian Koberlein - @briankoberlein Chad Weber - Kevin Gill - @kevinmgill Created by: Fraser Cain and Jason Harmer Edited by: Chad Weber Music: Left Spine Down - “X-Ray”

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Our Milky Way Galaxy a black hole/wormhole?

The Entire Milky Way Might Be a Huge Wormhole That�s Stable and Navigable
by Vanessa Janek on January 22, 2015

Artist rendering of a wormhole connecting two galaxies. Credit: Davide and Paolo Salucci.
Our very own Milky Way could be home to a giant tunnel in spacetime.
At least, that�s what the authors of a new study have proposed. According to the team,
a collaboration between Indian, Italian, and North American researchers at the
International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA) in Italy, the central halo of our galaxy
may harbor enough dark matter to support the creation and sustenance of a �stable and navigable�
shortcut to a distant region of spacetime � a phenomenon known as a wormhole

Our very own Milky Way could be home to a giant tunnel in spacetime.

A graphic of the structure of a theorized wormhole (NASA)
But according to the team at SISSA, large amounts of dark matter could provide this fuel.
Using a model of dark matter�s abundance that is based on the rotation curves of other spiral galaxies,
the researchers found that the distribution of dark matter in the Milky Way produced solutions in general relativity that would,
theoretically, allow a stable wormhole to arise.

Galactic wormhole

Published on Jan 21, 2015
The (hypothetical) wormhole proposed by Kuefettig, Salucci et al connecting the center with a very far position
of our Galaxy when one passes through its throat.
Crediti: Davide and Paolo Salucci Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License

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Black Holes!

No Escape from the Inside of a Black Hole

No Escape: Dive Into a Black Hole (Infographic) by Karl Tate - When matter is compressed beyond a certain density,
a black hole is created. It is called black because no light can escape from it. Some black holes are the tombstones
of what were once massive stars. An enormous black hole is thought to lurk at the center of the Milky Way galaxy.


Artist’s view of a black hole-powered blazar (a type of quasar) lighting up the center of a remote galaxy.
As matter falls toward the supermassive black hole at the galaxy’s center, some of it is accelerated outward at nearly
the speed of light along jets pointed in opposite directions. When one of the jets happens to be aimed in the direction
of Earth, as illustrated here, the galaxy appears especially bright and is classified as a blazar.
Credits: M. Weiss/CfA

An illustration of the binary black hole system, OJ 287, showing the massive black hole surrounded by an accretion disk.
A second, smaller black hole is believed to orbit the larger. When it intersects the larger’s disk coming and going,
astronomers see a pair of bright flares. The predictions of the model are verified by observations.
Credit: University of Turku

Long exposures made with the Hubble Space Telescope showing brilliant quasars flaring in the hearts of six distant galaxies.
Credit: NASA/ESA

Illustration of a gradually precessing orbit similar to the precessing orbit of the smaller smaller black hole
orbiting the larger in OJ 287. Credit: Willow W / Wikipedia

OJ 287 has been fluctuating around 13.5-140 magnitude lately. You can spot it in a 10-inch
or larger scope in Cancer not far from the Beehive Cluster. Click the image for a detailed AAVSO finder chart.
Diagram: Bob King, source: Stellarium

A supermassive black hole has been found in an unusual spot: an isolated region of space
where only small, dim galaxies reside.
Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

X-ray echoes of a shredded star provide close-up of monster black hole

In this artist’s rendering, a thick accretion disc has formed around a supermassive black hole
following the tidal disruption of a star that wandered too close. Stellar debris has fallen toward the black hole
and collected into a thick chaotic disc of hot gas. Flashes of X-ray light near the centre of the disc result in light echoes
that allow astronomers to map the structure of the funnel-like flow, revealing for the first time strong gravity effects
around a normally quiescent black hole.
Illustration credits: NASA/Swift/Aurore Simonnet, Sonoma State University.

Parallel universes - Black Hole connected to a theoretical White Hole.
- If the theoretical science is correct, there are an infinite number of universes
with same situations and different outcomes, do you believe?

Chandra X-ray Observatory finds evidence for violent stellar merger CHANDRA X-RAY CENTER / NASA'S MARSHALL SPACE FLIGHT CENTER PRESS RELEASE

This artist’s illustration depicts the aftermath of a neutron star merger, including the generation of a Gamma-ray burst (GRB).
In the centre is a compact object — either a black hole or a massive neutron star — and in red is a disc of material
left over from the merger, containing material falling towards the compact object. Energy from this infalling material drives the GRB
jet shown in yellow. In orange is a wind of particles blowing away from the disc and in blue is material ejected from the compact object
and expanding at very high speeds of about one-tenth the speed of light.
Illustration credit: NASA/CXC/M.Weiss.

WHAT IS A SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE? Published: 28 Nov , 2016 by Matt Williams

Detection of an unusually bright X-Ray flare from Sagittarius A*, a supermassive black hole in the center of the Milky Way galaxy. Credit: NASA/CXC/Stanford/I. Zhuravleva et al.

by Nancy Atkinson

A trio of X-ray observatories has captured a decade-long eating binge by a black hole almost two billion light years away. Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/UNH/D.Lin et al, Optical: CFHT, Illustration: NASA/CXC/M.Weiss.

A Quick Look at XJ1500+0154

Published on Feb 6, 2017 Black holes are extremely compact and dense, generating incredibly powerful gravitational forces. When an object, like a star, wanders too close, these forces can rip that object to pieces. Some of the material from the doomed object is hurtled out into space. The black hole devours the rest. Astronomers just found a black hole gnawing on the remains of a star for over ten years. This is the largest meal, or the first clean-your-plate job, for a black hole ever seen. Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License


This artist's impression depicts a white dwarf star found in the closest known orbit around a black hole. As the circle around each other, the black hole's gravitational pull drags material from the white dwarf's outer layers toward it. Astronomers found that the white dwarf in X9 completes one orbit around the black hole in less than a half an hour. They estimate the white dwarf and black hole are separated by about 2.5 times the distance between the Earth and Moon — an extraordinarily small span in cosmic terms. (Credit: NASA/CXC/M.Weiss)

Astronomers found an extraordinarily close stellar pairing in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae, a dense collection of stars located on the outskirts of the Milky Way galaxy, about 14,800 light years from Earth. Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/University of Alberta/A.Bahramian et al.


Stars circle 'round the Milky Way central supermassive black hole. Credit: ESO

The Milky Way’s supermassive black hole, called Sagittarius A* (or Sgr A*), is arrowed in the image made of the innermost galactic center in X-ray light by NASA’s Chandra Observatory. To the left or east of Sgr A* is Sgr A East, a large cloud that may be the remnant of a supernova. Centered on Sgr A* is a spiral shaped group of gas streamers that might be falling onto the hole. Credit: NASA/CXC/MIT/Frederick K. Baganoff et al.

This time-lapse movie in infrared light shows how stars in the central light-year of the Milky Way have moved over a period of 14 years. The yellow mark at the image center represents the location of Sgr A*, site of an unseen supermassive black hole. Credit: A. Eckart (U. Koeln) & R. Genzel (MPE-Garching), SHARP I, NTT, La Silla Obs., ESO

On September 14, 2013, astronomers caught the largest X-ray flare ever detected from Sgr A*, the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way, using NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory. This event was 400 times brighter than the usual X-ray output from the source and was possibly caused when Sgr A*’s strong gravity tore apart an asteroid in its neighborhood, heating the debris to X-ray-emitting temperatures before slurping down the remains.The inset shows the giant flare. Credit: NASA

Motion of "S2" and other stars around the central Black Hole

Published on Oct 20, 2012 An international team of astronomers, lead by researchers at the Max-Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE), has directly observed an otherwise normal star orbiting the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. Ten years of painstaking measurements have been crowned by a series of unique images obtained by the Adaptive Optics (AO) NAOS-CONICA (NACO) instrument on the 8.2-m VLT YEPUN telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory. It turns out that earlier this year the star approached the central Black Hole to within 17 light-hours - only three times the distance between the Sun and planet Pluto - while travelling at no less than 5000 km/sec . In a break-through paper appearing in the research journal Nature on October 17th, 2002, the present team reports their exciting results, including high-resolution images that allow tracing two-thirds of the orbit of a star designated "S2" . It is currently the closest observable star to the compact radio source and massive black hole candidate "SgrA*" ("Sagittarius A") at the very center of the Milky Way. The orbital period is just over 15 years. The new measurements exclude with high confidence that the central dark mass consists of a cluster of unusual stars or elementary particles, and leave little doubt of the presence of a supermassive black hole at the centre of the galaxy in which we live . ESO Press Video eso0226 was produced by the Max-Planck-Society and shows the observed motions of S2 and other stars in this area. Credit: ESO Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License

Two Black Holes Merge into One

Published on Feb 11, 2016 A computer simulation shows the collision of two black holes, a tremendously powerful event detected for the first time ever by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory, or LIGO. LIGO detected gravitational waves, or ripples in space and time generated as the black holes spiraled in toward each other, collided, and merged. This simulation shows how the merger would appear to our eyes if we could somehow travel in a spaceship for a closer look. It was created by solving equations from Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity using the LIGO data. The two merging black holes are each roughly 30 times the mass of the sun, with one slightly larger than the other. Time has been slowed down by a factor of about 100. The event took place 1.3 billion years ago. The stars appear warped due to the incredibly strong gravity of the black holes. The black holes warp space and time, and this causes light from the stars to curve around the black holes in a process called gravitational lensing. The ring around the black holes, known as an Einstein ring, arises from the light of all the stars in a small region behind the holes, where gravitational lensing has smeared their images into a ring. The gravitational waves themselves would not be seen by a human near the black holes and so do not show in this video, with one important exception. The gravitational waves that are traveling outward toward the small region behind the black holes disturb that region’s stellar images in the Einstein ring, causing them to slosh around, even long after the collision. The gravitational waves traveling in other directions cause weaker, and shorter-lived sloshing, everywhere outside the ring. This simulation was created by the multi-university SXS (Simulating eXtreme Spacetimes) project. For more information, visit Image credit: SXS Category Science & Technology License Creative Commons Attribution license (reuse allowed) Source videos View attributionse


Close-up of star near a supermassive black hole (artist’s impression). Credit: ESA/Hubble, ESO, M. Kornmesser

This artist’s impression depicts a rapidly spinning supermassive black hole surrounded by an accretion disc. Credit: ESA/Hubble, ESO, M. Kornmesse

Spinning supermassive black hole rips star apart (artist’s impression)

This animation shows how the ASASSN-15lh most likely happened. A Sun-like star gets into the area of influence of a rapidly spinning supermassive black hole in the centre of a distant galaxy. While its orbit gets constantly closer to the black hole the star gets “spaghettified”, creating an accretion disc around the supermassive black hole. When it finally gets ripped apart close to the event horizon it creates a bright flash, that could resemble a superluminous supernova. More information and download options for this video ESA's Video dierectory page Credit: ESA/Hubble, ESO, M. Kornmesser Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License

Supermassive black hole rips star apart (simulation)

This simulation shows a star getting torn apart by the gravitational tides of a supermassive black hole. The star gets “spaghettified” and after several orbits creates an accretion disc. Scientists believe that the superluminous ASASSN-15lh event happened like that. More information and download options for this video ESA's Video dierectory page Credit: ESA/Hubble, ESO, N. Stone, K. Hayasaki Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License

The Missing Link: Where Are Medium-Size Black Holes?

While black holes with masses of a few suns and ones with masses of millions of suns exist, scientists have been puzzled to see few with masses in between those two extremes. New work may suggest a reason why. Credit: Ute Kraus/Wikipedia, CC BY-SA

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Gravitional waves!

Black Holes Ringing in Space
International Astronomical Union

Caption This is the LIGO signal that heralded the era of gravitational wave astronomy. Credit Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab

Two different "chirps" of gravitational waves produced by black holes

Published on Jun 15, 2016 The best-fit models of LIGO’s gravitational-wave signals are converted into sounds.
The first sound is from modeled gravitational waves detected by LIGO on Dec. 26, 2015, when two black holes merged.
This is then compared to the first-ever gravitational waves detected by LIGO on Sept. 14, 2015, when two higher-mass black holes merged.
This sequence is repeated. The pitch of both signals is then increased, allowing them to be heard more easily,
and this sequence is also repeated. Category Education License Standard YouTube License

LIGO again detects gravitational waves Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Published on Jun 15, 2016 For the second time, scientists have directly detected gravitational waves — ripples through the fabric of space-time,
created by extreme, cataclysmic events in the distant universe Learn more
The team has determined that the incredibly faint ripple that eventually reached Earth was produced by two black holes colliding
at half the speed of light, 1.4 billion light years away. Video produced and edited by Melanie Gonick/MIT Two Black Holes Merge into One simulation: SXS LIGO's First Observing Run timeline image: LIGO Ripples in Spacetime Pond animation: LIGO/T. Pyle Black Holes withKnown Masses image: LIGO Comparing "Chirps" from Black Holes animation: LIGO Spiral Dance of Black Holes still image: LIGO/T. Pyle Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License

Gravitational waves: A new type of astronomy Gravitational waves provide key to some of the universe's greatest mysteries

[Artist Impression of the Big Bang] 20 Jun 2016 at 07:02, Katyanna Quach The first time physicists announced that the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO)
had detected gravitational waves, on September 14, 2015, it was breaking news. The discovery coincided with the
100-year anniversary of Einstein's theory of General Relativity, which predicted the existence of gravitational waves.
Last week's announcement that LIGO had detected a second round of gravitational waves proved that the first signal was not a fluke.
The tremendous effort from thousands of physicists, engineers and computer scientists to design, build, and maintain LIGO,
and analyse its results, have paid off. The detector is alive and working well – uncovering signals from the most violent events
happening in our universe.

Seeds of black holes could be revealed by gravitational waves detected in space Published: Sunday, June 26, 2016 - 18:32 in Astronomy & Space

Scientists led by Durham University's Institute for Computational Cosmology ran the huge cosmological simulations
that can be used to predict the rate at which gravitational waves caused by collisions between the monster black holes might be detected.
The amplitude and frequency of these waves could reveal the initial mass of the seeds from which the first black holes grew
since they were formed 13 billion years ago and provide further clues about what caused them and where they formed, the researchers said.

What Are Gravitational Waves?

Published on Jun 8, 2015 When massive objects crash into each other, there should be a release of gravitational waves. So what are these things and how can we detect them? Support us More stories at: Follow us on Twitter: @universetoday Follow us on Tumblr Like us on Facebook Google+ - Instagram - Created by: Fraser Cain and Jason Harmer Edited by: Chad Weber Music: Left Spine Down - “X-Ray” Who wants to bet against Einstein? You? You? What about you?

An artist’s impression of two merging black holes. Image: NASA/CXC/A. Hobart


In February 2016, LIGO detected gravity waves for the first time. As this artist's illustration depicts, the gravitational waves were created by merging black holes. Credit: LIGO/A. Simonnet.

LIGO’s two facilities, located in Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington.

The universe unlocked: gravitational waves detected

Published on Feb 11, 2016 Watch Monash astrophysicists and LIGO Scientific Collaborators Dr Eric Thrane and Dr Paul Lasky describe the incredible event which took place about 1.4 billion years ago, generating the first ever gravitational wave to be detected on 14 September 2015 by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors in the USA. They describe the moment of realisation that this was a real gravitational wave, the significance of the detection and how it could unlock the secrets of the universe.

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First “wind nebula” found around an ultra-magnetic neutron star, or magnetar
Credit Astronomy Now Magazine

This X-ray image shows extended emission around a source known as Swift J1834.9-0846,
a rare ultra-magnetic neutron star called a magnetar. The glow arises from a cloud of fast-moving particles produced
by the neutron star and corralled around it. Colour indicates X-ray energies, with 2,000-3,000 electron volts (eV) in red,
3,000-4,500 eV in green, and 5,000 to 10,000 eV in blue.
The image combines observations by the European Space Agency’s XMM-Newton spacecraft taken on 16 March and 16 October 2014.
Image credits: ESA/XMM-Newton/Younes et al. 2016.

First "Wind Nebula" Seen Around a Magnetar

Artist Impression ESO/L CALCACA Take the mass of half a million Earths and compress it down to the size of Manhattan.
If you have taken precaution and survived the energy release from this process, then well done!
You’ve got yourself a neutron star, one of the densest objects in the universe. CREDIT Meet the IFLScience Team Alfredo Carpineti staff writwer

Magnetar could have boosted explosion of extremely bright supernova

Artist’s impression of a magnetar boosting a super-luminous supernova and gamma-ray burst.
Image credit: Kavli IPMU.

The yellow-orange host galaxy (left) before the supernova, and afterwards (right) when the ASASSN-15lh
supernova’s blue light outshines its host galaxy.
Image credit: The Dark Energy Survey / B. Shappee / ASAS-SN team.

Light curves of ASASSN-15lh and SN 2011kl compared with normal supernovae SN 1999em and SN 1987A.
Image credit: Bersten et al.

Some neutron stars may end up as ultra-small black holes.

What are Magnetars?

Published on Aug 9, 2016 Magnetars are neutron stars with massively boosted magnetic fields.
How do this stellar remnants form, and what would happen if you got too close to one? Support us More stories at: Follow us on Twitter: @universetoday Follow us on Tumblr Like us on Facebook Google+ - Instagram - Team: Fraser Cain - @fcain Jason Harmer - @jasoncharmer Chad Weber - Created by: Fraser Cain and Jason Harmer Edited by: Chad Weber Music: Left Spine Down - “X-Ray”

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Four-panel graphic showing the two pulsars, Geminga (upper left) and B0355+54 (upper right), observed by Chandra. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/CXC/PSU/B.Posselt et al/N.Klingler et al/Nahks TrEhnl

Pulsar Animation

Published on May 14, 2013 Pulsars are thought to emit relatively narrow radio beams, shown as green in this animation. If these beams don't sweep toward Earth, astronomers cannot detect the radio signals. Pulsar gamma-ray emission (magenta) is thought to form a broader fan of radiation that can be detected even when the radio beam is unfavorably oriented. (No audio.) Credit: NASA/Fermi/Cruz deWilde Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License

An artist’s impression of an accreting X-ray millisecond pulsar. Credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center/Dana Berry

An all-sky view from the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, showing the position of Geminga in the Milky Way. Credit : NASA/DOE/International LAT Team.


An artist's impression of a pulsar syphoning material away from a companion star, leading to the formation of a millisecond pulsar.

The slowest spinning X-ray pulsar in a globular star cluster has been discovered in the Andromeda galaxy. Credit: A. Zolotov

A diagram of the ESA XMM-Newton X-Ray Telescope. Delivered to orbit by a Ariane 5 launch vehicle in 1999. Credit: ESA/XMM-Newton

The Slowest Spinning X-Ray Pulsar in an Extragalactic Globular Cluster

From THE

The Astrophysical Journal

Millisecond Pulsar with Magnetic Field Structure

Published on Sep 25, 2013 This animation illustrates how an old pulsar in a binary system can be reactivated -- and sped up to a millisecond spin -- by accreting gas from its companion star. A pulsar is a rapidly rotating neutron star that emits pulses of radiation (such as X-rays and radio waves) at regular intervals. A millisecond pulsar is one with a rotational period between 1 and 10 milliseconds, or from 60,000 to 6,000 revolutions per minute. Pulsars form in supernova explosions, but even newborn pulsars don't spin at millisecond speeds, and they gradually slow down with age. If, however, a pulsar is a member of a binary system with a normal star, gas transferred from the companion can spin up an old, slow pulsar to the millisecond range. For more information, go to This video is public domain and can be downloaded at: Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License

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What Are The Different Kinds of Supernovae?

Published on Mar 14, 2016 Supernovae are some of the most powerful explosions in the Universe, releasing more energy in a moment than most stars will release in their entire lifetimes. Support us at: More stories at: Twitter: @universetoday Facebook: Google+ - Instagram - Team: Fraser Cain - @fcain Chad Weber - Created by: Fraser Cain and Jason Harmer Edited by: Chad Weber Music: Left Spine Down - “X-Ray” There are a few places in the Universe that defy comprehension. And supernovae have got to be the most extreme places you can imagine. We’re talking about a star with potentially dozens of times the size and mass of our own Sun that violently dies in a faction of a second. Faster than it take me to say the word supernova, a complete star collapses in on itself, creating a black hole, forming the denser elements in the Universe, and then exploding outward with the energy of millions or even billions of stars.

What Are The Different Kinds of Supernovae?

Published on Aug 25, 2014 A NASA sounding rocket has confirmed that the solar system is inside an ancient supernova remnant. Life on Earth survived despite the nearby blasts. Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License

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NASA has discovered a wave of hot gas larger than the Milky Way rolling through the Perseus galaxy cluster. This X-ray image is the result of 16 days of observing with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The image was filtered to make details easier to see.Credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center/Stephen Walker et al.

X-ray 'Tsunami' Found in Perseus Galaxy Cluster

Published on May 2, 2017 Combining data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory with radio observations and computer simulations, scientists have found a vast wave of hot gas in the nearby Perseus galaxy cluster. Spanning some 200,000 light-years, the wave is about twice the size of our own Milky Way galaxy.

This Hubble image shows NGC 1275, the Super-Massive Black Hole at the center of the Perseus cluster. NGC 1275 could not have been responsible for the “bay” feature found in Perseus. Image: By NASA, ESA, and the Hubble Heritage (STScI/AURA)-ESA/Hubble Collaboration – Public Domain

This alternate image of the Perseus galaxy cluster shows the wave at the 7 o’clock position. Image: NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center/Stephen Walker et al.

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How Isotropic is the Universe?


Is there an up out there? New research says no. Out there in the universe, one direction is much like another.
Credit: NASA; ESA; Z. Levay and R. van der Marel, STScI; T. Hallas; and A. Mellinger

The cosmic microwave background radiation, enhanced to show the anomalies.
Credit: ESA and the Planck Collaboration

Timeline of the Big Bang and the expansion of the Universe. Credit: NASA

A “now and then” all-sky image captured by the Planck spacecraft,
simultaneously showing our galaxy and its structures seen as in recent history; and ‘then’
– the red afterglow of the Big Bang seen as it was just 380,000 years later.
Credit: ESA

And be sure to check out this animation produced by the UCL team, which illustrates the Planck mission’s CMB data:

Further Reading: arXiv, Science

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Theories of Cosmology


How was our Universe created? How did it come to be the seemingly infinite place we know of today?
And what will become of it, ages from now? These are the questions that have been puzzling philosophers
and scholars since the beginning the time, and led to some pretty wild and interesting theories.
Today, the consensus among scientists, astronomers and cosmologists is that the Universe as we know it was created
in a massive explosion that not only created the majority of matter, but the physical laws that govern our ever-expanding cosmos.
This is known as The Big Bang Theory.

Inflation Epoch With the creation of the first fundamental forces of the universe, the Inflation Epoch began,
lasting from 10-32 seconds in Planck time to an unknown point. Most cosmological models suggest that the Universe
at this point was filled homogeneously with a high-energy density, and that the incredibly high temperatures and pressure
gave rise to rapid expansion and cooling.

The history of the Universe, from the Big Bang to the current epoch. Credit:

Is everything we know about the universe's expansion WRONG?
Measurements suggest it's growing faster than any theory can explain:
  • Researchers looked at 'standard candles' in nearby galaxies
  • These are stars of known brightness, used to measure their distances
  • Number doesn't fit with measurements of radiation left from Big Bang
  • If both are correct, it means something is missing in model of cosmology
Read more: Follow us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook

Diagram showing the Lambda-CBR universe, from the Big Bang to the the current era. Credit: Alex Mittelmann/Coldcreation

The universe has been expanding since the Big Bang kickstarted the growth about 13.8 billion years ago.
And it is said to be getting faster in its acceleration as it gets bigger (illustrated).
Dark matter's gravity slows cosmic expansion, while dark energy pushes in the opposite direction and causes it to accelerate Read more: Follow us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook

Data from stars in nearby galaxies such as M101 (pictured) has allowed researchers to complete the most precise measurement
ever made of how quickly the universe is expanding. They found it is expanding 8 per cent faster than predicted, which puts into
question our accepted model of the evolution of the universe
Read more Follow us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook


A team of astronomers using the Hubble Space Telescope have found that the current rate of expansion of the Universe
could be almost 10 percent faster than previously thought.
Image: NASA, ESA, A. Feild (STScI), and A. Riess (STScI/JHU)

The researchers looked at a larger sample of stars than before in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) pictured, the third closest galaxy to the Milky Way, to determine how fast the universe is expanding. They measured the value with an uncertainty of 2.4 per cent, down from the previous best result of 3.3 per cent COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND read more Follow us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook

Much of what scientists know about dark matter and dark energy comes from radiation left behind from the Big Bang,
called cosmic microwave background (CMB) (pictured). The most exhaustive study of CMB - a portrait of the universe at 400,000 years of age
- was done in recent years by Esa's Planck observatory Read more: Follow us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook

Time had a beginning but whether it will have an end depends on the nature of the dark energy that is causing it to expand at an accelerating rate.
The rate of this expansion may eventually tear the universe apart, forcing it to end in a Big Rip
Read more: Follow us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook

The Largest Black Holes in the Universe

Published on Sep 26, 2012 Our Milky Way may harbor millions of black holes... the ultra dense remnants of dead stars. But now, in the universe far beyond our galaxy,
there's evidence of something far more ominous. A breed of black holes that has reached incomprehensible size and destructive power.
Just how large, and violent, and strange can they get?
A new era in astronomy has revealed a universe long hidden to us. High-tech instruments sent into space have been tuned to sense
high-energy forms of light -- x-rays and gamma rays -- that are invisible to our eyes and do not penetrate our atmosphere.
On the ground, precision telescopes are equipped with technologies that allow them to cancel out the blurring effects of the atmosphere.
They are peering into the far reaches of the universe, and into distant caldrons of light and energy. In some distant galaxies,
astronomers are now finding evidence that space and time are being shattered by eruptions so vast they boggle the mind.
We are just beginning to understand the impact these outbursts have had on the universe: On the shapes of galaxies,
the spread of elements that make up stars and planets, and ultimately the very existence of Earth. The discovery of what causes
these eruptions has led to a new understanding of cosmic history. Back in 1995, the Hubble space telescope was enlisted to begin
filling in the details of that history. Astronomers selected tiny regions in the sky, between the stars. For days at a time,
they focused Hubble's gaze on remote regions of the universe.
These hubble Deep Field images offered incredibly clear views of the cosmos in its infancy. What drew astronomers'
attention were the tiniest galaxies, covering only a few pixels on Hubble's detector. Most of them do not have the grand spiral
or elliptical shapes of large galaxies we see close to us today.
Instead, they are irregular, scrappy collections of stars. The Hubble Deep Field confirmed a long-standing idea that the
universe must have evolved in a series of building blocks, with small galaxies gradually merging and assembling into larger ones.
Partner rating No mature content Show Cosmic Journeys Season 1 Episode 5 Release date 9/26/12 Running time 24:59 Director Thomas Lucas Producer Thomas Lucas Category Science & Tech Documentary Nature License Standard YouTube License Source videos View attributions


A team of astronomers from South Africa have noticed a series of supermassive black holes in distant galaxies
that are all spinning in the same direction.
Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Artist’s impression of a supermassive black hole. Credit: NRAO

By studying the large-scale spin distribution of SMBHs could tell us much about the matter
fluctuations that gave rise to the large-scale structure of the Universe.
Credit: Volker Springel/Virgo Consortium.

Graphic representation of data obtained by the Baryon Oscillation Spectrographic Survey (BOSS)
showing redshift of galaxies over an 11 billion years period.
Credit: SDSS-III


An international team of researchers have produced the largest 3-D map of the universe to date,(May 2016)
which validates Einstein's theory of General Relativity.

Experimental results looking at the expansion of the universe, in comparison to that predicted by Einstein’s theory of general relativity
in green. Credit: Kavli IPMU/Okumura et al.

First Version of a 3D Map of Universe from the FastSound Project

Published on Aug 8, 2013 This is the first version of a 3D map of the Universe from the FastSound Project,
which is surveying galaxies in the Universe over nine billion light years away.
Using Subaru Telescope's new Fiber Multi-Object Spectrograph (FMOS), the map includes 1,100 galaxies
and shows the large-scale structure of the Universe about 4.7 billion years after the Big Bang. M
The area covers 2.5 times 3 degrees of the sky. The colors of the galaxies indicate their star formation rate,
i.e., the total mass of stars produced in a galaxy every year. The gradation in background color represents the number density
of galaxies; the underlying mass distribution (which is dominated by dark matter) would look like this if we could see it.
The project is ongoing and will eventually include 5,000 galaxies over ten billion light years away.
For more information on the 3D map and FastSound Project Credit: NAOJ with part of the data provided by CFHT, SDSS Related Article: "Constructing a 3D Map of the Large-Scale Structure of the Universe" Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License

Astronomers Detected Clear Sign of Oxygen In Galaxy 13.1 Billion Light Years Away from Earth

This is an artist's concept of SXDF-NB1006-2. Many young bright stars are located in the galaxy and ionize the gas
inside and around the galaxy. Green color indicates the ionized oxygen detected by ALMA, whereas purple shows the distribution
of ionized hydrogen detected by the Subaru Telescope (Photo : NAOJ) A team of international researchers have detected gas containing clear signs of oxygen in one of the most distant galaxies
13.1 billion light years away from Earth.
The discovery, published in the journal Science, could help the researchers understand how young stars ionized oxygen
and other heavier elements during the cosmic reionisation period 150 million years after the big bang.

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