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PAGE Table of Contents

Introduction to the Frontier Fields Initiative!!!

The Coming James webb telescope it's coming maybe in 2020???????


NASA's James Webb Main Page

Stars of Cosmology and Science

Albert Einstein

Nikola Tesla

Stephen Hawking

Capturing the birth of the universe: Model simulates the 'cosmic soup' of particles that appeared seconds after the Big Bang


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How the universe began is a complex question involving study by vastly different branches of physics including particle physics,
nuclear physics and cosmology. A team in the US has brought together all of these disciplines to create a computer model simulating
the first few minutes after the Big Bang
A few seconds after the Big Bang, the universe was made of a thick, 10-billion degree 'cosmic soup' of subatomic particles.
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In honor of Dr. Stephen Hawking, the COSMOS center will be creating the most detailed 3D mapping effort of the Universe to date. Credit: BBC, Illus.: T.Reyes

Stephen Hawking’s final theory on the Big Bang, submitted shortly before he passed away, was recently published. Credit: University of Cambridge

What Is The Evidence For The Big Bang?

Almost all astronomers agree on the theory of the Big Bang, that the entire Universe is spreading apart, 
with distant galaxies speeding away from us in all directions.
Run the clock backwards to 13.8 billion years ago, and everything in the Cosmos started out as a single point in space. 
In an instant, everything expanded outward from that location, forming the energy, 
atoms and eventually the stars and galaxies we see today.
But to call this concept merely a theory is to misjudge the overwhelming amount of evidence.
There are separate lines of evidence, each of which independently points towards this as the origin story for our Universe.
The first came with the amazing discovery that almost all galaxies are moving away from us. 
In 1912, Vesto Slipher calculated the speed and direction of "spiral nebulae" by measuring 
the change in the wavelengths of light coming from them. He realized that most of them were moving away from us.
We now know these objects are galaxies, but a century ago astronomers thought these vast collections 
of stars might actually be within the Milky Way.
In 1924, Edwin Hubble figured out that these galaxies are actually outside the Milky Way. 
He observed a special type of variable star that has a direct relationship between its energy output and the time it takes to pulse in brightness. 
By finding these variable stars in other galaxies, he was able to calculate how far away they were.
Hubble discovered that all these galaxies are outside our own Milky Way, millions of light-years away.
So, if these galaxies are far, far away, and moving quickly away from us,
 this suggests that the entire Universe must have been located in a single point billions of years ago.
The second line of evidence came from the abundance of elements we see around us. 
In the earliest moments after the Big Bang, there was nothing more than hydrogen compressed into a tiny volume, 
with crazy high heat and pressure.
The entire Universe was acting like the core of a star, fusing hydrogen into helium and other elements.
This is known as Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. As astronomers look out into the Universe 
and measure the ratios of hydrogen, helium and other trace elements,
 they exactly match what you would expect to find if the entire Universe was once a really big star.
Line of evidence number 3: cosmic microwave background radiation.
In the 1960s, Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson were experimenting with a 6-meter radio telescope, 
and discovered a background radio emission that was coming from every direction in the sky - day or night.
 From what they could tell, the entire sky measured a few degrees above absolute zero.
Theories predicted that after a Big Bang, there would have been a tremendous release of radiation. 
And now, billions of years later, this radiation would be moving so fast away from us that the wavelength 
of this radiation would have been shifted from visible light to the microwave background radiation we see today.
The final line of evidence is the formation of galaxies and the large scale structure of the cosmos. 
About 10,000 years after the Big Bang, the Universe cooled to the point that the gravitational attraction 
of matter was the dominant form of energy density in the Universe. 
This mass was able to collect together into the first stars, galaxies and eventually
 the large scale structures we see across the Universe today.
These are known as the 4 pillars of the Big Bang Theory. 
Four independent lines of evidence that build up one of the most influential
 and well-supported theories in all of cosmology.
But there are more lines of evidence. 
There are fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background radiation, we don't see any stars older than 13.8 billion years, 
the discoveries of dark matter and dark energy, along with how the light curves from distant supernovae.
So, even though it's a theory, we should regard it the same way that we regard gravity, evolution and general relativity. 
We have a pretty good idea of what's going on, and we've come up with a good way to understand and explain it. 
As time progresses we'll come up with more inventive experiments to throw at. We'll refine our understanding 
and the theory that goes along with it.
Most importantly, we can have confidence when talking about what we know about the 
early stages of our magnificent Universe and why we understand it to be true.

This illustration shows the evolution of the Universe, from the Big Bang on the left, to modern times on the right. Image: NASA

Artist’s impression of merging binary black holes. Credit: LIGO/A. Simonnet.

The Frontier Fields concept of the Milky Way

Our galaxy (pictured) is 13.2 billion years old - less than a billion years younger than the universe itself.
A few seconds after the Big Bang, 14 billion years ago, the universe was made of a thick, 10-billion degree 'cosmic soup' of subatomic particles
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Image showing nearly 50,000 galaxies in the nearby universe detected by the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) in infrared light. Credit: 2MASS/ T. H. Jarrett/J. Carpenter/R. Hurt

Illustration of the Canis Dwarf Galaxy and its associated tidal (shown in red) in relation to our Milky Way. Credit: R. Ibata (Strasbourg Observatory, ULP) et al./2MASS/NASA

Images of a few examples of merging galaxies taken by the Hubble Space Telescope. Credit: NASA/ESA/STScI/A. Evans/NRAO/Caltech

An artist depicts the incredibly powerful flare that erupted from the red dwarf star EV Lacertae. Credit: Casey Reed/NASA

The Frontier Fields Main Page!!

The Main page For the Frontier Fields Initiative!!

The International Astronomical Union!!

The Main page For The International Astronomical Union

A new site from Cornell university Numerical simulation of Black Holes!

Black Hole Infographic

Black Holes Explained – From Birth to Death

Gravity at the Macro Level
Black Holes Explained – From Birth to Death

Merging Black Holes
Found on This Black Hole GIF Is Utterly Mesmerizing by Lisette Mejia

Gravity at the Sub Atomic Level
Theorotical dwscription of Gravity at he Planck Level(10 exp -33 meters)

Fascinating animated image representing the idea of coiled spatial dimensions
predicted by super-string theory. Tiny spatial dimensions at every point in 3-space (3D-space depicted by the grid)
would be coiled in a "Calabi-Yau" manifold. Dimensions inside the manifolds could be connected across 3D space,
though spatially separate in the sense that we are familiar with.


Hubble Images

THe Hubble Deep Field Video

Uploaded on Dec 7, 2006
This is the latest incarnation of the HDF video. The narration has been edited to include research from a paper
in Physical Review Letters (2004) which puts the size of the universe at 46.5 billion light years, not 78 billion as I originally stated.
In the video narration, I round that value up to 47 billion light years. I also took out Numa Numa guy.
"Shine On You Crazy Diamond (Parts 1 - 5) [Edit] (2011 - Remaster)" by Pink Floyd (AmazonMP3)
Pink Floyd
Science & Technology
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Hubble Sees the 'Teenage Years' of Quasars

Space Fan Hangout #4: CLASH Finds the Most Distant Galaxy

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Cluster ABEL2256

�Color� radio image of galactic cluster Abell 2256. Credit: Owen et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF.
Even though it�s said that the average human eye can discern from seven to ten million different values
and hues of colors, in reality our eyes are sensitive to only a very small section of the entire electromagnetic spectrum, diverse segments of the EM spectrum, from minuscule yet powerful gamma rays to incredibly long, low-frequency radio waves.

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The Hubble Deep Field Abell 2744 Cluster

Galaxy cluster Abell 2744, with multiple images of individual galaxies marked.
These multiple images are produced by the cluster�s gravitational lens.

The Hubble Deep Field Abel 2744 Cluster(un marked also known as Pandoras Box)

Peering deep into the early universe, this picturesque parallel field observation from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope
reveals thousands of colorful galaxies swimming in the inky blackness of space. A few foreground stars from our own galaxy,
the Milky Way, are also visible. In October 2013 Hubble’s Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) and Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) began observing this portion of sky
as part of the Frontier Fields program. This spectacular skyscape was captured during the study of the giant galaxy cluster Abell 2744,
otherwise known as Pandora’s Box. While one of Hubble’s cameras concentrated on Abell 2744, the other camera viewed this
adjacent patch of sky near to the cluster. Containing countless galaxies of various ages, shapes and sizes, this parallel field observation is nearly as deep
as the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field. In addition to showcasing the stunning beauty of the deep universe in incredible detail,
this parallel field — when compared to other deep fields — will help astronomers understand how similar the universe looks in different directions.
Image credit: NASA, ESA and the HST Frontier Fields team (STScI), Acknowledgement: Judy Schmidt Text credit: European Space Agency Last Updated: March 11, 2016 Editor: Ashley Morrow

Frontier Fields Cluster Abell 2744 Interactive Viewer

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Hubble Deep Field Abel 1689 Cluster

Dark matter in the massive galaxy cluster Abell 1689, located 2.2 billion light-years away. The cluster contains about 1,000 galaxies
and trillions of stars. Hubble cannot see the dark matter directly. Astronomers inferred its location by analyzing the effect of gravitational lensing,
where light from galaxies behind Abell 1689 is distorted by intervening matter within the cluster. Credit: NASA, ESA, and Z. Levay (STScI)

Dark Matter in the Hubble Deep Field Abel 1689 Cluster

This Hubble image shows the distribution of dark matter in the center of the giant galaxy cluster Abell 1689,
containing about 1,000 galaxies and trillions of stars. Researchers used the observed positions of
135 lensed images of 42 background galaxies to calculate the location and amount of dark matter in the cluster.
They superimposed a map of these inferred dark matter concentrations, tinted blue, on an image of the cluster.
The greastest concentration of dark matter is in the cluster’s center.
Credit: NASA, ESA, D. Coe, N. Benitez , T. Broadhurst

Radio Telescope reveals hundreds of Hidden galaxies behind the Milky Way GAlaxy

Illustration of the depth by which Hubble imaged galaxies in prior Deep Field initiatives, in units of the Age of the Universe. Credit: NASA and A. Feild (STScI)

NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope captured this stunning infrared image of the center of the Milky Way Galaxy, where the black hole Sagitarrius A resides. Image: NASA/JPL-Caltech “We have used light of about 1 mm wavelength, which can be observed by mm telescopes like SPT, APEX or ALMA. At this wavelength the photons are produced by the thermal radiation of dust. The beauty of using this long wavelength is, that for a large redshift range (look back time), the dimming of galaxies [caused] by increasing distance is compensated by the redshift – so the observed intensity is independent of the redshift. This is because, for higher redshift galaxies, one is looking at intrinsically shorter wavelengths (by (1+z)) where the radiation is stronger for a thermal spectrum like the dust spectrum.”

The Hubble Ultra Deep Field seen in ultraviolet, visible, and infrared light. Image Credit: NASA, ESA, H. Teplitz and M. Rafelski (IPAC/Caltech), A. Koekemoer (STScI), R. Windhorst (Arizona State University), and Z. Levay (STScI)

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An explosive quartet
Hubble sees multiple images of a supernova for the very first time 5 March 2015

Hubble sees multiple images of a supernova for the very first time! Galaxy cluster MACS j1149.5+223 and a supernova four times over An explosive quartet!: This image shows the huge galaxy cluster MACS J1149+2223,
whose light took over 5 billion years to reach us. The huge mass of the cluster and one of the galaxies within
it is bending the light from a supernova behind them and creating four separate images of it.
The light has been magnified and distorted due to gravitational lensing and as a result the images are arranged around
the elliptical galaxy in a formation known as an Einstein cross. A close-up of the Einstein cross is shown in the inset.

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Cluster MACJ0717

Disco lights from a galaxy cluster seen with multi-spectral eyes

MACS J0717 is one of the most complex galaxy clusters known, the result of four galaxy clusters colliding.
It is located about 5.4 billion light-years away from Earth, in the constellation of Auriga (The Charioteer).
Image credit: NASA, ESA, CXC, NRAO/AUI/NSF, STScI, and R. van Weeren (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics).
Acknowledgment: NASA, ESA, and J. Lotz (STScI), and the HFF team.

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Cluster MACJ0416

Hubble Looks Into a Cosmic Kaleidoscope

At first glance, this cosmic kaleidoscope of purple, blue and pink offers a strikingly beautiful —
and serene — snapshot of the cosmos. However, this multi-colored haze actually marks the site of two colliding galaxy clusters,
forming a single object known as MACS J0416.1-2403 (or MACS J0416 for short).
MACS J0416 is located about 4.3 billion light-years from Earth, in the constellation of Eridanus.
This image of the cluster combines data from three different telescopes: the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope
(showing the galaxies and stars), the NASA Chandra X-ray Observatory (diffuse emission in blue),
and the NRAO Jansky Very Large Array (diffuse emission in pink). Each telescope shows a different element of the cluster,
allowing astronomers to study MACS J0416 in detail.

Caption: Multiply lensed galaxies are marked in this image of MACS J0416.1-2403.
The brown lines create a contour map of mass concentrations according to the best-fit strong lensing model.
Multiple images of the same galaxy are indicated by the same number to the left of the decimal point.
The digit to the right of the decimal counts off the number of multiples. The most secure candidates are shown in blue;
the less secure are portrayed in magenta.

Distibution of Dark Matter In MACSJ0416

An image of the distribution of dark matter in MACSJ0416.

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The ABELL 370 Cluster

The massive galaxy cluster Abell 370 as seen by Hubble Space Telescope in the final Frontier Fields observations.

The locations of Hubble’s observations of the Abell 370 galaxy cluster (right) and the adjacent parallel field (left) are plotted over a Digitized Sky Survey (DSS) image. The blue boxes outline the regions of Hubble’s visible-light observations, and the red boxes indicate areas of Hubble’s infrared-light observations. A scale bar in the lower left corner of the image indicates the size of the image on the sky. The scale bar corresponds to about 1/30th the apparent width of the full moon as seen from Earth. Astronomers refer to this unit of measurement as one arcminute, denoted as 1′.

The “parallel field” shows a wide assortment of galaxies stretching back through time and space.

Location of the Abell 370 galaxy cluster field and its parallel field in the constellation Cetus. Credit—Frontier Field location: STScI; Enlarged constellation map: International Astronomical Union (IAU)

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Astronomers Set a New Galaxy Distance Record

Image: Distant Galaxy EGS-zs8-1 in CANDELS Field This is a Hubble Space Telescope image of the farthest spectroscopically confirmed galaxy observed to date (May 5, 2015).
It was identified in this Hubble image of a field of galaxies in the CANDELS survey (Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey).
NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope also observed the unique galaxy. The W. M. Keck Observatory was used to obtain a spectroscopic redshift (z=7.7),
extending the previous redshift record

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Astronomers Discover First Mulitiple-image Gravitationally-lensed Supernova

The four dots centered on the bright elliptical galaxy at top are multiple images of supernova SN Refsdal
taken with the Hubble Space Telescope between November 10-20, 2014. In the bottom image, the galaxy has been digitally removed
to show only the supernova images, labeled S1 through S4. The line segments are diffraction spikes from a nearby star.
Credit: P.L. Kelly/GLASS/Hubble Frontier Fields
How about four supernovae for the price of one? Using the Hubble Space Telescope,
Dr. Patrick Kelly of the University of California-Berkeley along with the GLASS
(Grism Lens Amplified Survey from Space) and Hubble Frontier Fields teams, discovered a remote supernova lensed
into four copies of itself by the powerful gravity of a foreground galaxy cluster. Dubbed SN Refsdal, the object was discovered in the rich galaxy cluster MACS J1149.6+2223 five billion light years from Earth in the constellation Leo.


Artist's drawing a black hole (Cygnus X-1) as it pulls matter from a blue star beside it.
Credits: NASA/CXC/M.Weiss

Artist’s impression of the star in its multi-million year long and previously unobservable phase as a large, red supergiant.
Credit: CAASTRO / Mats Björklund (Magipics)


Hundreds of New Gravitational Lenses Discovered to Help Study the Distant Universe

General relativity tells us that everything, even light, is affected by the mass of an object. When a beam of light passes near a large mass, its path is deflected. This shift in the direction of light is known as gravitational lensing, and it was one of the first confirmed effects of Einstein’s theory.

A simulation of how distant galaxies are affected by weak lensing (shape noise) and strong lensing. Credit: Wikipedia

A lens candidate found by the study (left), and the same galaxy as seen by Hubble (right). Credit: Hubble Space Telescope, Dark Energy Camera Legacy Survey


Finding Gravitonal Lenses

Huang, X., et al. “Finding Strong Gravitational Lenses in the DESI DECam Legacy Survey.” The Astrophysical Journal 894.1 (2020): 78.

Finding Strong Gravitational Lenses in the DESI DECam Legacy Survey

Report on Finding Strong Gravitational Lenses in the DESI DECam Legacy Survey (PDF)

Credits: X. Huang, 1 M. Domingo,2 A. Pilon,1 V. Ravi,2 C. Storfer,1 D.J. Schlegel, 3 S. Bailey, 3 A. Dey, 4 D. Herrera, 4 S. Juneau, 4 M. Landriau, 3 D. Lang, 5, 6, 7 A. Meisner, 4 J. Moustakas, 8 A.D. Myers, 9 E.F. Schlafly, 4 F. Valdes, 4 B.A. Weaver,4 J. Yang, 10 and C. Yeche ` 11 1Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94117-1080 2Department of Computer Science, University of San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94117-1080 3Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA, 94720 4National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85719 5Dunlap Institute, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4, Canada 6Department of Astronomy & Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4, Canada 7Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5, Canada 8Department of Physics and Astronomy, Siena College, 515 Loudon Rd., Loudonville, NY 12211 9Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of Wyoming, 1000 E. University, Dept 3905, Laramie, WY 8207 10Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 11IRFU, CEA, Universit´e Paris-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France

Watch Monash astrophysicists and LIGO Scientific Collaborators Dr Eric Thrane and Dr Paul Lasky describe the incredible event which took place about 1.4 billion years ago, generating the first ever gravitational wave to be detected on 14 September 2015 by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors in the USA. They describe the moment of realisation that this was a real gravitational wave, the significance of the detection and how it could unlock the secrets of the universe.

Artistic representation of the material around the supernova 1987A.
Credit: ESO/L.

The Large Binocular Telescope, showing the two imaging mirrors. Credit: NASA

Future missions, like the James Webb Space Telescope,
will be able to observe possible failed supernovae/blackholes to confirm their existence.
Credit: NASA/JPL


To celebrate 30 years since Supernova 1987A was spotted, a new composite image shows the most recent images of the object, and contains X-rays from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory (blue), visible light data from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (green), and submillimeter wavelength data from the international Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) telescope in Chile (red).

This new image of the supernova remnant SN 1987A was taken by the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope in January 2017 using its Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3). Credit: NASA, ESA, and R. Kirshner (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation) and P. Challis (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics)

Published on Feb 24, 2017 This time-lapse video sequence of Hubble Space Telescope images reveals dramatic changes in a ring of material around the exploded star Supernova 1987A. The images, taken from 1994 to 2016, show the effects of a shock wave from the supernova blast smashing into the ring. The ring begins to brighten as the shock wave hits it. The ring is about one light-year across. Discovered in 1987, Supernova 1987A is the closest observed supernova to Earth since 1604. The exploded star resides 163,000 light-years away in the Large Magellanic Cloud, a satellite galaxy of our Milky Way. Credit: NASA, ESA, and R. Kirshner (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation), and P. Challis (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics) Read more: Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License

This scientific visualization, using data from a computer simulation, shows Supernova 1987A, as the luminous ring of material we see today. Credits: NASA, ESA, and F. Summers and G. Bacon (STScI); Simulation Credit: S. Orlando (INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo)

This montage shows the evolution of the supernova SN 1987A between 1994 and 2016, as seen by the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. Credit: NASA, ESA, and R. Kirshner (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation) and P. Challis (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics)

A Quick Look at Supernova 1987A

Published on Feb 24, 2017 On February 24, 1987, astronomers in the southern hemisphere saw a supernova in the Large Magellanic Cloud. This new object was dubbed “Supernova 1987A” and was the brightest stellar explosion seen in over four centuries. Chandra has observed Supernova 1987A many times and the X-ray data reveal important information about this object. X-rays from Chandra have shown the expanding blast wave from the original explosion slamming into a ring of material expelled by the star before it exploded. The latest Chandra data reveal the blast wave has moved beyond the ring into a region that astronomers do not know much about. These observations can help astronomers learn how supernovas impact their environments and affect future generations of stars and planets. Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License

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Black Holes!

No Escape from the Inside of a Black Hole

No Escape: Dive Into a Black Hole (Infographic) by Karl Tate - When matter is compressed beyond a certain density,
a black hole is created. It is called black because no light can escape from it. Some black holes are the tombstones
of what were once massive stars. An enormous black hole is thought to lurk at the center of the Milky Way galaxy.


Artist’s view of a black hole-powered blazar (a type of quasar) lighting up the center of a remote galaxy.
As matter falls toward the supermassive black hole at the galaxy’s center, some of it is accelerated outward at nearly
the speed of light along jets pointed in opposite directions. When one of the jets happens to be aimed in the direction
of Earth, as illustrated here, the galaxy appears especially bright and is classified as a blazar.
Credits: M. Weiss/CfA

An illustration of the binary black hole system, OJ 287, showing the massive black hole surrounded by an accretion disk.
A second, smaller black hole is believed to orbit the larger. When it intersects the larger’s disk coming and going,
astronomers see a pair of bright flares. The predictions of the model are verified by observations.
Credit: University of Turku

Long exposures made with the Hubble Space Telescope showing brilliant quasars flaring in the hearts of six distant galaxies.
Credit: NASA/ESA

Illustration of a gradually precessing orbit similar to the precessing orbit of the smaller smaller black hole
orbiting the larger in OJ 287. Credit: Willow W / Wikipedia

OJ 287 has been fluctuating around 13.5-140 magnitude lately. You can spot it in a 10-inch
or larger scope in Cancer not far from the Beehive Cluster. Click the image for a detailed AAVSO finder chart.
Diagram: Bob King, source: Stellarium

A supermassive black hole has been found in an unusual spot: an isolated region of space
where only small, dim galaxies reside.
Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

X-ray echoes of a shredded star provide close-up of monster black hole

In this artist’s rendering, a thick accretion disc has formed around a supermassive black hole
following the tidal disruption of a star that wandered too close. Stellar debris has fallen toward the black hole
and collected into a thick chaotic disc of hot gas. Flashes of X-ray light near the centre of the disc result in light echoes
that allow astronomers to map the structure of the funnel-like flow, revealing for the first time strong gravity effects
around a normally quiescent black hole.
Illustration credits: NASA/Swift/Aurore Simonnet, Sonoma State University.

Parallel universes - Black Hole connected to a theoretical White Hole.
- If the theoretical science is correct, there are an infinite number of universes
with same situations and different outcomes, do you believe?

Chandra X-ray Observatory finds evidence for violent stellar merger CHANDRA X-RAY CENTER / NASA'S MARSHALL SPACE FLIGHT CENTER PRESS RELEASE

This artist’s illustration depicts the aftermath of a neutron star merger, including the generation of a Gamma-ray burst (GRB).
In the centre is a compact object — either a black hole or a massive neutron star — and in red is a disc of material
left over from the merger, containing material falling towards the compact object. Energy from this infalling material drives the GRB
jet shown in yellow. In orange is a wind of particles blowing away from the disc and in blue is material ejected from the compact object
and expanding at very high speeds of about one-tenth the speed of light.
Illustration credit: NASA/CXC/M.Weiss.

WHAT IS A SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE? Published: 28 Nov , 2016 by Matt Williams

Detection of an unusually bright X-Ray flare from Sagittarius A*, a supermassive black hole in the center of the Milky Way galaxy. Credit: NASA/CXC/Stanford/I. Zhuravleva et al.

by Nancy Atkinson

A trio of X-ray observatories has captured a decade-long eating binge by a black hole almost two billion light years away. Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/UNH/D.Lin et al, Optical: CFHT, Illustration: NASA/CXC/M.Weiss.

A Quick Look at XJ1500+0154

Published on Feb 6, 2017 Black holes are extremely compact and dense, generating incredibly powerful gravitational forces. When an object, like a star, wanders too close, these forces can rip that object to pieces. Some of the material from the doomed object is hurtled out into space. The black hole devours the rest. Astronomers just found a black hole gnawing on the remains of a star for over ten years. This is the largest meal, or the first clean-your-plate job, for a black hole ever seen. Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License


This artist's impression depicts a white dwarf star found in the closest known orbit around a black hole. As the circle around each other, the black hole's gravitational pull drags material from the white dwarf's outer layers toward it. Astronomers found that the white dwarf in X9 completes one orbit around the black hole in less than a half an hour. They estimate the white dwarf and black hole are separated by about 2.5 times the distance between the Earth and Moon — an extraordinarily small span in cosmic terms. (Credit: NASA/CXC/M.Weiss)

Astronomers found an extraordinarily close stellar pairing in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae, a dense collection of stars located on the outskirts of the Milky Way galaxy, about 14,800 light years from Earth. Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/University of Alberta/A.Bahramian et al.


Stars circle 'round the Milky Way central supermassive black hole. Credit: ESO

The Milky Way’s supermassive black hole, called Sagittarius A* (or Sgr A*), is arrowed in the image made of the innermost galactic center in X-ray light by NASA’s Chandra Observatory. To the left or east of Sgr A* is Sgr A East, a large cloud that may be the remnant of a supernova. Centered on Sgr A* is a spiral shaped group of gas streamers that might be falling onto the hole. Credit: NASA/CXC/MIT/Frederick K. Baganoff et al.

This time-lapse movie in infrared light shows how stars in the central light-year of the Milky Way have moved over a period of 14 years. The yellow mark at the image center represents the location of Sgr A*, site of an unseen supermassive black hole. Credit: A. Eckart (U. Koeln) & R. Genzel (MPE-Garching), SHARP I, NTT, La Silla Obs., ESO

On September 14, 2013, astronomers caught the largest X-ray flare ever detected from Sgr A*, the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way, using NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory. This event was 400 times brighter than the usual X-ray output from the source and was possibly caused when Sgr A*’s strong gravity tore apart an asteroid in its neighborhood, heating the debris to X-ray-emitting temperatures before slurping down the remains.The inset shows the giant flare. Credit: NASA

Motion of "S2" and other stars around the central Black Hole

Published on Oct 20, 2012 An international team of astronomers, lead by researchers at the Max-Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE), has directly observed an otherwise normal star orbiting the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. Ten years of painstaking measurements have been crowned by a series of unique images obtained by the Adaptive Optics (AO) NAOS-CONICA (NACO) instrument on the 8.2-m VLT YEPUN telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory. It turns out that earlier this year the star approached the central Black Hole to within 17 light-hours - only three times the distance between the Sun and planet Pluto - while travelling at no less than 5000 km/sec . In a break-through paper appearing in the research journal Nature on October 17th, 2002, the present team reports their exciting results, including high-resolution images that allow tracing two-thirds of the orbit of a star designated "S2" . It is currently the closest observable star to the compact radio source and massive black hole candidate "SgrA*" ("Sagittarius A") at the very center of the Milky Way. The orbital period is just over 15 years. The new measurements exclude with high confidence that the central dark mass consists of a cluster of unusual stars or elementary particles, and leave little doubt of the presence of a supermassive black hole at the centre of the galaxy in which we live . ESO Press Video eso0226 was produced by the Max-Planck-Society and shows the observed motions of S2 and other stars in this area. Credit: ESO Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License

Two Black Holes Merge into One

Published on Feb 11, 2016 A computer simulation shows the collision of two black holes, a tremendously powerful event detected for the first time ever by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory, or LIGO. LIGO detected gravitational waves, or ripples in space and time generated as the black holes spiraled in toward each other, collided, and merged. This simulation shows how the merger would appear to our eyes if we could somehow travel in a spaceship for a closer look. It was created by solving equations from Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity using the LIGO data. The two merging black holes are each roughly 30 times the mass of the sun, with one slightly larger than the other. Time has been slowed down by a factor of about 100. The event took place 1.3 billion years ago. The stars appear warped due to the incredibly strong gravity of the black holes. The black holes warp space and time, and this causes light from the stars to curve around the black holes in a process called gravitational lensing. The ring around the black holes, known as an Einstein ring, arises from the light of all the stars in a small region behind the holes, where gravitational lensing has smeared their images into a ring. The gravitational waves themselves would not be seen by a human near the black holes and so do not show in this video, with one important exception. The gravitational waves that are traveling outward toward the small region behind the black holes disturb that region’s stellar images in the Einstein ring, causing them to slosh around, even long after the collision. The gravitational waves traveling in other directions cause weaker, and shorter-lived sloshing, everywhere outside the ring. This simulation was created by the multi-university SXS (Simulating eXtreme Spacetimes) project. For more information, visit Image credit: SXS Category Science & Technology License Creative Commons Attribution license (reuse allowed) Source videos View attributionse


ON SEPT. 14, 2015, at almost the exact same time that a pair of sprawling gravitational-wave detectors heard the last gasp of a collision between two black holes, another, more perplexing observation took place. Over 500 kilometers above the surface of the Earth, the orbiting Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope logged a passing burst of gamma rays, a high-energy form of light. The signal was so slight that the NASA scientists who run the satellite didn’t notice it at first.


Close-up of star near a supermassive black hole (artist’s impression). Credit: ESA/Hubble, ESO, M. Kornmesser

This artist’s impression depicts a rapidly spinning supermassive black hole surrounded by an accretion disc. Credit: ESA/Hubble, ESO, M. Kornmesse

Spinning supermassive black hole rips star apart (artist’s impression)

This animation shows how the ASASSN-15lh most likely happened. A Sun-like star gets into the area of influence of a rapidly spinning supermassive black hole in the centre of a distant galaxy. While its orbit gets constantly closer to the black hole the star gets “spaghettified”, creating an accretion disc around the supermassive black hole. When it finally gets ripped apart close to the event horizon it creates a bright flash, that could resemble a superluminous supernova. More information and download options for this video ESA's Video dierectory page Credit: ESA/Hubble, ESO, M. Kornmesser Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License

Supermassive black hole rips star apart (simulation)

This simulation shows a star getting torn apart by the gravitational tides of a supermassive black hole. The star gets “spaghettified” and after several orbits creates an accretion disc. Scientists believe that the superluminous ASASSN-15lh event happened like that. More information and download options for this video ESA's Video dierectory page Credit: ESA/Hubble, ESO, N. Stone, K. Hayasaki Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License

The Missing Link: Where Are Medium-Size Black Holes?

While black holes with masses of a few suns and ones with masses of millions of suns exist, scientists have been puzzled to see few with masses in between those two extremes. New work may suggest a reason why. Credit: Ute Kraus/Wikipedia, CC BY-SA


Artist’s impression of ULAS J1120+0641, a very distant quasar powered by a black hole with a mass two billion times that of the Sun. Credit: ESO/M. Kornmesser Ever since the discovery of Sagittarius A* at the center of our galaxy, astronomers have come to understand that most massive galaxies have a Supermassive Black Hole (SMBH) at their core. These are evidenced by the powerful electromagnetic emissions produced at the nuclei of these galaxies – which are known as “Active Galatic Nuclei” (AGN) – that are believed to be caused by gas and dust accreting onto the SMBH. For decades, astronomers have been studying the light coming from AGNs to determine how large and massive their black holes are. This has been difficult, since this light is subject to the Doppler effect, which causes its spectral lines to broaden. But thanks to a new model developed by researchers from China and the US, astronomers may be able to study these Broad Line Regions (BLRs) and make more accurate estimates about the mass of black holes.

An artist’s impression of the accretion disc around the supermassive black hole that powers an active galaxy. Credit: NASA/Dana Berry, SkyWorks Digital

Dense clouds of dust and gas, illustrated here, can obscure less energetic radiation from an active galaxy’s central black hole. High-energy X-rays, however, easily pass through. Credit: ESA/NASA/AVO/Paolo Padovani


Artist's impression of the relativistic jet emanating from a black hole. Credit: Northwestern University

See model W-HR in Movie shows the data of 7,400 - 31,000 t_g. Unfortunately, the data of the first 0-7,400 t_g was corrupted due to output error. The accretion disc is initially turned slightly to the left and towards the viewer (black hole spin is pointing vertical in the movie). We see how the relativistic jets are launched (greatly disturbing the accretion disc) and how they point along the rotation axis of the disc (slightly to the left and towards the viewer), and not along the black hole spin. Over time, we see how the jets and disc change direction together, moving slightly to the right and aligning slightly with the black hole. Together, the disc and jets precess around the black hole spin about 40 degrees over the entire simulation. Precession of the accretion disc was predicted by Lense and Thirring in 1918 (and confirmed in previous work). Here, we present the first simulation ever to demonstrate that jets follow along with the precession of the accretion disc.

Detection of an unusually bright X-Ray flare from Sagittarius A*, a supermassive black hole in the center of the Milky Way galaxy. Credit: NASA/CXC/Stanford/I. Zhuravleva et al.


Artist's impression of the star cluster NGC 3201 orbiting an black hole with about four times the mass of the Sun. Credit: ESO/L. Calçada

Astronomers using ESO’s MUSE instrument on the Very Large Telescope in Chile have discovered a star in the cluster NGC 3201 that is behaving very strangely. It appears to be orbiting an invisible black hole with about four times the mass of the Sun — the first such inactive stellar-mass black hole found in a globular cluster. This important discovery impacts on our understanding of the formation of these star clusters, black holes, and the origins of gravitational wave events. This artist’s impression shows how the star and its massive but invisible black hole companion may look, as they orbit each other in the rich heart of the globular star cluster. More information and download options: Credit: ESO/L. Calçada/

Astronomers using ESO’s MUSE instrument on the Very Large Telescope in Chile have discovered a star in the cluster NGC 3201 that is behaving very strangely. It appears to be orbiting an invisible black hole with about four times the mass of the Sun — the first such inactive stellar-mass black hole found in a globular cluster. This important discovery impacts on our understanding of the formation of these star clusters, black holes, and the origins of gravitational wave events. This artist’s impression shows how the star and its massive but invisible black hole companion may look, as they orbit each other in the rich heart of the globular star cluster. More information and download options: Credit: ESO/L. Calçada/

Astronomers using ESO’s MUSE instrument on the Very Large Telescope in Chile have discovered a star in the cluster NGC 3201 that is behaving very strangely. It appears to be orbiting an invisible black hole with about four times the mass of the Sun — the first such inactive stellar-mass black hole found in a globular cluster. This important discovery impacts on our understanding of the formation of these star clusters, black holes, and the origins of gravitational wave events. This short ESOcast takes a look at this discovery and its significance. The video is available in 4K UHD. The ESOcast Light is a series of short videos bringing you the wonders of the Universe in bite-sized pieces. The ESOcast Light episodes will not be replacing the standard, longer ESOcasts, but complement them with current astronomy news and images in ESO press releases. More information and download options: Subscribe to ESOcast in iTunes! Receive future episodes on YouTube by pressing the Subscribe button above or follow us on Vimeo: Watch more ESOcast episodes: :Find out how to view and contribute subtitles for the ESOcast in multiple languages, or translate this video on YouTube Credit: ESO.


Artist's impression of the black hole wind at the center of a galaxy. Credit: ESA

Artist’s impression of a black hole’s wind sweeping away galactic gas. Credit: ESA

Artist’s concept of Sagittarius A, the supermassive black hole at the center of our galaxy. Credit: NASA/JPL

Books and Black Holes: Stephen Hawking's Language Helps Us Grasp the Cosmos By Doris Elin Salazar, Contributor | March 17, 2018 06:15am ET

Visualization of a black hole. Credit: D. Coe, J. Anderson, and R. van der Marel (STScI)/NASA/ESA On April Fools' Day in 1988, a modern science classic by world-renowned theoretical physicist and cosmologist Stephen Hawking was published. Called "A Brief History of Time," it set off a wave of public curiosity about humanity's place in the universe.

NASA Captured A Super-Massive Black Hole! *2018*

In 2005 scientists discovered a huge energy burst which occurred 150 million light-years away from Earth inside a galaxy named 'Arp-299'. They thought it's a supernova explosion but it was't. In 2011, scientists discovered that the energy burst is elongating which makes it a jet of energy coming from unknown source. 2 months ago in 2018, research showed it was actually a Black Hole 20 million times more massive than sun eating a star. For the very first time, NASA recently captured the first ever image of a Black Hole. Watch Black Hole Image:
Black Holes are known to swallow everything coming in their path but that's not the end. With time they they emit enormous amounts of energy. In 2015 Hubble Telescope captured something that shocked the entire world. It was a burst of plasma jet 260 million light years away in space coming from an unknown source. Calculations showed that the jet was travelling at 98% the speed of light. Scientists finally concluded that they have captured a plasma burst coming from a super-massive Black Hole. Which is located inside a galaxy 260 million light-years away. Join me on instagram Source NASA Darkest Child A by Kevin MacLeod, License Artist:

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Supernova Infographic



Hubble image of the supernova SN 2001ig, which indicated the presence of a companion. Credits: NASA, ESA, S. Ryder (Australian Astronomical Observatory), and O. Fox (STScI)

Report on Supernova survivor(PDF)

Artist’s impression of a pulsar siphoning material from a companion star. Credit: NASA

Artist’s rendering of SN 1993J, where a red supergiant supernova progenitor star (left) is exploding after having transferred about 10 solar masses of hydrogen gas to the blue companion star (right). Credit: ESA

What Are The Different Kinds of Supernovae?

Published on Mar 14, 2016 Supernovae are some of the most powerful explosions in the Universe, releasing more energy in a moment than most stars will release in their entire lifetimes. Support us at: More stories at: Twitter: @universetoday Facebook: Google+ - Instagram - Team: Fraser Cain - @fcain Chad Weber - Created by: Fraser Cain and Jason Harmer Edited by: Chad Weber Music: Left Spine Down - “X-Ray” There are a few places in the Universe that defy comprehension. And supernovae have got to be the most extreme places you can imagine. We’re talking about a star with potentially dozens of times the size and mass of our own Sun that violently dies in a faction of a second. Faster than it take me to say the word supernova, a complete star collapses in on itself, creating a black hole, forming the denser elements in the Universe, and then exploding outward with the energy of millions or even billions of stars.

What Are The Different Kinds of Supernovae?

Published on Aug 25, 2014 A NASA sounding rocket has confirmed that the solar system is inside an ancient supernova remnant. Life on Earth survived despite the nearby blasts. Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License

Hubble Movie Shows Movement of Light Echo Around Exploded Star
Release date: Nov 9, 2017 1:00 PM (EST)

Light from Supernova Bouncing Off Giant Dust Cloud Voices reverberating off mountains and the sound of footsteps bouncing off walls are examples of an echo. Echoes happen when sound waves ricochet off surfaces and return to the listener. Space has its own version of an echo. It’s not made with sound but with light, and occurs when light bounces off dust clouds. The Hubble telescope has just captured one of these cosmic echoes, called a “light echo,” in the nearby starburst galaxy M82, located 11.4 million light-years away. A movie assembled from more than two years’ worth of Hubble images reveals an expanding shell of light from a supernova explosion sweeping through interstellar space three years after the stellar blast was discovered. The “echoing” light looks like a ripple expanding on a pond. The supernova, called SN 2014J, was discovered on Jan. 21, 2014. A light echo occurs because light from the stellar blast travels different distances to arrive at Earth. Some light comes to Earth directly from the supernova blast. Other light is delayed because it travels indirectly. In this case, the light is bouncing off a huge dust cloud that extends 300 to 1,600 light-years around the supernova and is being reflected toward Earth. So far, astronomers have spotted only 15 light echoes around supernovae outside our Milky Way galaxy. Light echo detections from supernovae are rarely seen because they must be nearby for a telescope to resolve them.


Artist's illustration of two merging neutron stars. The narrow beams represent the gamma-ray burst while the rippling spacetime grid indicates the isotropic gravitational waves that characterize the merger. Swirling clouds of material ejected from the merging stars are a possible source of the light that was seen at lower energies. Credit: National Science Foundation/LIGO/Sonoma State University/A. Simonnet

Collisions of neutron stars produce powerful gamma-ray bursts – and heavy elements like gold. Credit: Dana Berry, SkyWorks Digital, Inc.

Subaru Telescope Sees 1800 Supernovae

This image shows some of the supernovae imaged in the study. On the left is the star before it exploded, center is after it exploded, and the right is the supernovae itself (difference of the first two images.) Image Credit: N. Yasuda et. al.

An artist’s impression of a Super Luminous Supernova (SN 2006gy, not a part of this study.) Image Credit: By Credit: NASA/CXC/M.Weiss – Public Domain,

The camera is the Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC). It’s a gigantic camera larger than a human 
and it’s attached to the 8.2 meter Subaru Telescope at Maunakea Hawaii.
The Hyper Suprime-Cam boasts a whopping 870 megapixels.

n illustration of the Hyper Suprime-Cam with a human figure next to it for scale. Image Credit: National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

This map of the sky shows all of the 1800 supernovae discovered in this survey. Each red dot is a supernova. The blue circles are the areas Hyper Suprime-Cam was able to capture in one shot. The background is an image from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey.(SDSS) The Moon is shown to indicate the area of night sky that the HSC can capture. Image Credit: Kavli IPMU, Partial data supplied by: SDSS

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NASA has discovered a wave of hot gas larger than the Milky Way rolling through the Perseus galaxy cluster. This X-ray image is the result of 16 days of observing with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The image was filtered to make details easier to see.Credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center/Stephen Walker et al.

X-ray 'Tsunami' Found in Perseus Galaxy Cluster

Published on May 2, 2017 Combining data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory with radio observations and computer simulations, scientists have found a vast wave of hot gas in the nearby Perseus galaxy cluster. Spanning some 200,000 light-years, the wave is about twice the size of our own Milky Way galaxy.

This Hubble image shows NGC 1275, the Super-Massive Black Hole at the center of the Perseus cluster. NGC 1275 could not have been responsible for the “bay” feature found in Perseus. Image: By NASA, ESA, and the Hubble Heritage (STScI/AURA)-ESA/Hubble Collaboration – Public Domain

This alternate image of the Perseus galaxy cluster shows the wave at the 7 o’clock position. Image: NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center/Stephen Walker et al.

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How Isotropic is the Universe?


Is there an up out there? New research says no. Out there in the universe, one direction is much like another.
Credit: NASA; ESA; Z. Levay and R. van der Marel, STScI; T. Hallas; and A. Mellinger

The cosmic microwave background radiation, enhanced to show the anomalies.
Credit: ESA and the Planck Collaboration

Timeline of the Big Bang and the expansion of the Universe. Credit: NASA

A “now and then” all-sky image captured by the Planck spacecraft,
simultaneously showing our galaxy and its structures seen as in recent history; and ‘then’
– the red afterglow of the Big Bang seen as it was just 380,000 years later.
Credit: ESA

And be sure to check out this animation produced by the UCL team, which illustrates the Planck mission’s CMB data:

Further Reading: arXiv, Science

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Theories of Cosmology


How was our Universe created? How did it come to be the seemingly infinite place we know of today?
And what will become of it, ages from now? These are the questions that have been puzzling philosophers
and scholars since the beginning the time, and led to some pretty wild and interesting theories.
Today, the consensus among scientists, astronomers and cosmologists is that the Universe as we know it was created
in a massive explosion that not only created the majority of matter, but the physical laws that govern our ever-expanding cosmos.
This is known as The Big Bang Theory.

Inflation Epoch With the creation of the first fundamental forces of the universe, the Inflation Epoch began,
lasting from 10-32 seconds in Planck time to an unknown point. Most cosmological models suggest that the Universe
at this point was filled homogeneously with a high-energy density, and that the incredibly high temperatures and pressure
gave rise to rapid expansion and cooling.

The history of the Universe, from the Big Bang to the current epoch. Credit:

Is everything we know about the universe's expansion WRONG?
Measurements suggest it's growing faster than any theory can explain:
  • Researchers looked at 'standard candles' in nearby galaxies
  • These are stars of known brightness, used to measure their distances
  • Number doesn't fit with measurements of radiation left from Big Bang
  • If both are correct, it means something is missing in model of cosmology
Read more: Follow us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook

Diagram showing the Lambda-CBR universe, from the Big Bang to the the current era. Credit: Alex Mittelmann/Coldcreation

The universe has been expanding since the Big Bang kickstarted the growth about 13.8 billion years ago.
And it is said to be getting faster in its acceleration as it gets bigger (illustrated).
Dark matter's gravity slows cosmic expansion, while dark energy pushes in the opposite direction and causes it to accelerate Read more: Follow us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook

Data from stars in nearby galaxies such as M101 (pictured) has allowed researchers to complete the most precise measurement
ever made of how quickly the universe is expanding. They found it is expanding 8 per cent faster than predicted, which puts into
question our accepted model of the evolution of the universe
Read more Follow us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook


A team of astronomers using the Hubble Space Telescope have found that the current rate of expansion of the Universe
could be almost 10 percent faster than previously thought.
Image: NASA, ESA, A. Feild (STScI), and A. Riess (STScI/JHU)

The researchers looked at a larger sample of stars than before in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) pictured, the third closest galaxy to the Milky Way, to determine how fast the universe is expanding. They measured the value with an uncertainty of 2.4 per cent, down from the previous best result of 3.3 per cent COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND read more Follow us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook

Much of what scientists know about dark matter and dark energy comes from radiation left behind from the Big Bang,
called cosmic microwave background (CMB) (pictured). The most exhaustive study of CMB - a portrait of the universe at 400,000 years of age
- was done in recent years by Esa's Planck observatory Read more: Follow us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook

Time had a beginning but whether it will have an end depends on the nature of the dark energy that is causing it to expand at an accelerating rate.
The rate of this expansion may eventually tear the universe apart, forcing it to end in a Big Rip
Read more: Follow us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook

The Largest Black Holes in the Universe

Published on Sep 26, 2012 Our Milky Way may harbor millions of black holes... the ultra dense remnants of dead stars. But now, in the universe far beyond our galaxy,
there's evidence of something far more ominous. A breed of black holes that has reached incomprehensible size and destructive power.
Just how large, and violent, and strange can they get?
A new era in astronomy has revealed a universe long hidden to us. High-tech instruments sent into space have been tuned to sense
high-energy forms of light -- x-rays and gamma rays -- that are invisible to our eyes and do not penetrate our atmosphere.
On the ground, precision telescopes are equipped with technologies that allow them to cancel out the blurring effects of the atmosphere.
They are peering into the far reaches of the universe, and into distant caldrons of light and energy. In some distant galaxies,
astronomers are now finding evidence that space and time are being shattered by eruptions so vast they boggle the mind.
We are just beginning to understand the impact these outbursts have had on the universe: On the shapes of galaxies,
the spread of elements that make up stars and planets, and ultimately the very existence of Earth. The discovery of what causes
these eruptions has led to a new understanding of cosmic history. Back in 1995, the Hubble space telescope was enlisted to begin
filling in the details of that history. Astronomers selected tiny regions in the sky, between the stars. For days at a time,
they focused Hubble's gaze on remote regions of the universe.
These hubble Deep Field images offered incredibly clear views of the cosmos in its infancy. What drew astronomers'
attention were the tiniest galaxies, covering only a few pixels on Hubble's detector. Most of them do not have the grand spiral
or elliptical shapes of large galaxies we see close to us today.
Instead, they are irregular, scrappy collections of stars. The Hubble Deep Field confirmed a long-standing idea that the
universe must have evolved in a series of building blocks, with small galaxies gradually merging and assembling into larger ones.
Partner rating No mature content Show Cosmic Journeys Season 1 Episode 5 Release date 9/26/12 Running time 24:59 Director Thomas Lucas Producer Thomas Lucas Category Science & Tech Documentary Nature License Standard YouTube License Source videos View attributions


A team of astronomers from South Africa have noticed a series of supermassive black holes in distant galaxies
that are all spinning in the same direction.
Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Artist’s impression of a supermassive black hole. Credit: NRAO

By studying the large-scale spin distribution of SMBHs could tell us much about the matter
fluctuations that gave rise to the large-scale structure of the Universe.
Credit: Volker Springel/Virgo Consortium.

Graphic representation of data obtained by the Baryon Oscillation Spectrographic Survey (BOSS)
showing redshift of galaxies over an 11 billion years period.
Credit: SDSS-III


An international team of researchers have produced the largest 3-D map of the universe to date,(May 2016)
which validates Einstein's theory of General Relativity.

Experimental results looking at the expansion of the universe, in comparison to that predicted by Einstein’s theory of general relativity
in green. Credit: Kavli IPMU/Okumura et al.

First Version of a 3D Map of Universe from the FastSound Project

Published on Aug 8, 2013 This is the first version of a 3D map of the Universe from the FastSound Project,
which is surveying galaxies in the Universe over nine billion light years away.
Using Subaru Telescope's new Fiber Multi-Object Spectrograph (FMOS), the map includes 1,100 galaxies
and shows the large-scale structure of the Universe about 4.7 billion years after the Big Bang. M
The area covers 2.5 times 3 degrees of the sky. The colors of the galaxies indicate their star formation rate,
i.e., the total mass of stars produced in a galaxy every year. The gradation in background color represents the number density
of galaxies; the underlying mass distribution (which is dominated by dark matter) would look like this if we could see it.
The project is ongoing and will eventually include 5,000 galaxies over ten billion light years away.
For more information on the 3D map and FastSound Project Credit: NAOJ with part of the data provided by CFHT, SDSS Related Article: "Constructing a 3D Map of the Large-Scale Structure of the Universe" Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License

Astronomers Detected Clear Sign of Oxygen In Galaxy 13.1 Billion Light Years Away from Earth

This is an artist's concept of SXDF-NB1006-2. Many young bright stars are located in the galaxy and ionize the gas
inside and around the galaxy. Green color indicates the ionized oxygen detected by ALMA, whereas purple shows the distribution
of ionized hydrogen detected by the Subaru Telescope (Photo : NAOJ) A team of international researchers have detected gas containing clear signs of oxygen in one of the most distant galaxies
13.1 billion light years away from Earth.
The discovery, published in the journal Science, could help the researchers understand how young stars ionized oxygen
and other heavier elements during the cosmic reionisation period 150 million years after the big bang.


Artist’s impression of a disk galaxy transforming in to an elliptical galaxy. Stars are actively formed in the massive reservoir of dust and gas at the center of the galaxy. Credit: NAOJ

Evolution diagram of a galaxy. First the galaxy is dominated by the disk component (left) but active star formation occurs in the huge dust and gas cloud at the center of the galaxy (center). Then the galaxy is dominated by the stellar bulge and becomes an elliptical (or lenticular) galaxy. Credit: NAOJ

Observation images of a galaxy 11 billion light-years away. Credit: ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO), NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, Tadaki et al.

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Our Far Future


From Universe today

Gamma Rays Detected Coming From the Crab Nebula

A brand new magnetar found, it’s only 240 years old

A magnetar has been discovered throwing off bizarre blasts of radiation. Is this where fast radio bursts come from?

Only 31 Magnetars Have Ever Been Discovered. This one is Extra Strange. It’s Also a Pulsar

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