Subject: [exopolitics] Take a leap into hyperspace

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Aloha all, here's a significant article on the theory of hyperspace
drive. According to the physics theory behind hyperspace drive, one
can travel to Mars and back in five hours. This is significant because
political disclosure of the extraterrestrial presence would
simultaneously require disclosure of the scientific principles behind
some of the hyperspace, antigravity propulsion systems currently used
in covert programs. The scientific community has been deprived of many
of the key theories and principles used in many covert programs that
have devoloped exotic propulsion, navigation and communication systems
 from ET related technologies. Articles such as the one below help
prepare the scientific community for political disclosure of the ET
presence. The scientific community as well as the general public, mass media, etc., need to be made aware of the theoretical possibility of advanced technologies in order to minimize social disruption during the disclosure process. 

In peace

 Michael Salla, PhD

****


 >>>> SOURCE <<<<< 

Take a leap into hyperspace
    * 05 January 2006
    * NewScientist.com news service
    * Haiko Lietz

EVERY year, the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics
awards prizes for the best papers presented at its annual conference.
Last year's winner in the nuclear and future flight category went to a
paper calling for experimental tests of an astonishing new type of
engine. According to the paper, this hyperdrive motor would propel a
craft through another dimension at enormous speeds. It could leave
Earth at lunchtime and get to the moon in time for dinner. There's
just one catch: the idea relies on an obscure and largely unrecognised
kind of physics. Can they possibly be serious?

The AIAA is certainly not embarrassed. What's more, the US military
has begun to cast its eyes over the hyperdrive concept, and a space
propulsion researcher at the US Department of Energy's Sandia National
Laboratories has said he would be interested in putting the idea to
the test. And despite the bafflement of most physicists at the theory
that supposedly underpins it, Pavlos Mikellides, an aerospace engineer
at the Arizona State University in Tempe who reviewed the winning
paper, stands by the committee's choice. "Even though such features
have been explored before, this particular approach is quite unique,"
he says.

Unique it certainly is. If the experiment gets the go-ahead and works,
it could reveal new interactions between the fundamental forces of
nature that would change the future of space travel. Forget spending
six months or more holed up in a rocket on the way to Mars, a round
trip on the hyperdrive could take as little as 5 hours. All our
worries about astronauts' muscles wasting away or their DNA being
irreparably damaged by cosmic radiation would disappear overnight.
What's more the device would put travel to the stars within reach for
the first time. But can the hyperdrive really get off the ground?

The answer to that question hinges on the work of a little-known
German physicist. Burkhard Heim began to explore the hyperdrive
propulsion concept in the 1950s as a spin-off from his attempts to
heal the biggest divide in physics: the rift between quantum mechanics
and Einstein's general theory of relativity.

Quantum theory describes the realm of the very small - atoms,
electrons and elementary particles - while general relativity deals
with gravity. The two theories are immensely successful in their
separate spheres. The clash arises when it comes to describing the
basic structure of space. In general relativity, space-time is an
active, malleable fabric. It has four dimensions - three of space and
one of time - that deform when masses are placed in them. In
Einstein's formulation, the force of gravity is a result of the
deformation of these dimensions. Quantum theory, on the other hand,
demands that space is a fixed and passive stage, something simply
there for particles to exist on. It also suggests that space itself
must somehow be made up of discrete, quantum elements.

In the early 1950s, Heim began to rewrite the equations of general
relativity in a quantum framework. He drew on Einstein's idea that the
gravitational force emerges from the dimensions of space and time, but
suggested that all fundamental forces, including electromagnetism,
might emerge from a new, different set of dimensions. Originally he
had four extra dimensions, but he discarded two of them believing that
they did not produce any forces, and settled for adding a new
two-dimensional "sub-space" onto Einstein's four-dimensional space-time.

In Heim's six-dimensional world, the forces of gravity and
electromagnetism are coupled together. Even in our familiar
four-dimensional world, we can see a link between the two forces
through the behaviour of fundamental particles such as the electron.
An electron has both mass and charge. When an electron falls under the
pull of gravity its moving electric charge creates a magnetic field.
And if you use an electromagnetic field to accelerate an electron you
move the gravitational field associated with its mass. But in the four
dimensions we know, you cannot change the strength of gravity simply
by cranking up the electromagnetic field.

In Heim's view of space and time, this limitation disappears. He
claimed it is possible to convert electromagnetic energy into
gravitational and back again, and speculated that a rotating magnetic
field could reduce the influence of gravity on a spacecraft enough for
it to take off.

When he presented his idea in public in 1957, he became an instant
celebrity. Wernher von Braun, the German engineer who at the time was
leading the Saturn rocket programme that later launched astronauts to
the moon, approached Heim about his work and asked whether the
expensive Saturn rockets were worthwhile. And in a letter in 1964, the
German relativity theorist Pascual Jordan, who had worked with the
distinguished physicists Max Born and Werner Heisenberg and was a
member of the Nobel committee, told Heim that his plan was so
important "that its successful experimental treatment would without
doubt make the researcher a candidate for the Nobel prize".

But all this attention only led Heim to retreat from the public eye.
This was partly because of his severe multiple disabilities, caused by
a lab accident when he was still in his teens. But Heim was also
reluctant to disclose his theory without an experiment to prove it. He
never learned English because he did not want his work to leave the
country. As a result, very few people knew about his work and no one
came up with the necessary research funding. In 1958 the aerospace
company B´┐Żlkow did offer some money, but not enough to do the proposed
experiment.

While Heim waited for more money to come in, the company's director,
Ludwig B´┐Żlkow, encouraged him to develop his theory further. Heim took
his advice, and one of the results was a theorem that led to a series
of formulae for calculating the masses of the fundamental particles -
something conventional theories have conspicuously failed to achieve.
He outlined this work in 1977 in the Max Planck Institute's journal
Zeitschrift f´┐Żr Naturforschung, his only peer-reviewed paper. In an
abstruse way that few physicists even claim to understand, the
formulae work out a particle's mass starting from physical
characteristics, such as its charge and angular momentum.

Yet the theorem has proved surprisingly powerful. The standard model
of physics, which is generally accepted as the best available theory
of elementary particles, is incapable of predicting a particle's mass.
Even the accepted means of estimating mass theoretically, known as
lattice quantum chromodynamics, only gets to between 1 and 10 per cent
of the experimental values.
Gravity reduction

But in 1982, when researchers at the German Electron Synchrotron
(DESY) in Hamburg implemented Heim's mass theorem in a computer
program, it predicted masses of fundamental particles that matched the
measured values to within the accuracy of experimental error. If they
are let down by anything, it is the precision to which we know the
values of the fundamental constants. Two years after Heim's death in
2001, his long-term collaborator Illobrand von Ludwiger calculated the
mass formula using a more accurate gravitational constant. "The masses
came out even more precise," he says.

After publishing the mass formulae, Heim never really looked at
hyperspace propulsion again. Instead, in response to requests for more
information about the theory behind the mass predictions, he spent all
his time detailing his ideas in three books published in German. It
was only in 1980, when the first of his books came to the attention of
a retired Austrian patent officer called Walter Dr´┐Żscher, that the
hyperspace propulsion idea came back to life. Dr´┐Żscher looked again at
Heim's ideas and produced an "extended" version, resurrecting the
dimensions that Heim originally discarded. The result is
"Heim-Dr´┐Żscher space", a mathematical description of an
eight-dimensional universe.

From this, Dr´┐Żscher claims, you can derive the four forces known in
physics: the gravitational and electromagnetic forces, and the strong
and weak nuclear forces. But there's more to it than that. "If Heim's
picture is to make sense," Dr´┐Żscher says, "we are forced to postulate
two more fundamental forces." These are, Dr´┐Żscher claims, related to
the familiar gravitational force: one is a repulsive anti-gravity
similar to the dark energy that appears to be causing the universe's
expansion to accelerate. And the other might be used to accelerate a
spacecraft without any rocket fuel.

This force is a result of the interaction of Heim's fifth and sixth
dimensions and the extra dimensions that Dr´┐Żscher introduced. It
produces pairs of "gravitophotons", particles that mediate the
interconversion of electromagnetic and gravitational energy. Dr´┐Żscher
teamed up with Jochem H´┐Żuser, a physicist and professor of computer
science at the University of Applied Sciences in Salzgitter, Germany,
to turn the theoretical framework into a proposal for an experimental
test. The paper they produced, "Guidelines for a space propulsion
device based on Heim's quantum theory", is what won the AIAA's award
last year.

Claims of the possibility of "gravity reduction" or "anti-gravity"
induced by magnetic fields have been investigated by NASA before (New
Scientist, 12 January 2002, p 24). But this one, Dr´┐Żscher insists, is
different. "Our theory is not about anti-gravity. It's about
completely new fields with new properties," he says. And he and H´┐Żuser
have suggested an experiment to prove it.

This will require a huge rotating ring placed above a superconducting
coil to create an intense magnetic field. With a large enough current
in the coil, and a large enough magnetic field, Dr´┐Żscher claims the
electromagnetic force can reduce the gravitational pull on the ring to
the point where it floats free. Dr´┐Żscher and H´┐Żuser say that to
completely counter Earth's pull on a 150-tonne spacecraft a magnetic
field of around 25 tesla would be needed. While that's 500,000 times
the strength of Earth's magnetic field, pulsed magnets briefly reach
field strengths up to 80 tesla. And Dr´┐Żscher and H´┐Żuser go further.
With a faster-spinning ring and an even stronger magnetic field,
gravitophotons would interact with conventional gravity to produce a
repulsive anti-gravity force, they suggest.

Dr´┐Żscher is hazy about the details, but he suggests that a spacecraft
fitted with a coil and ring could be propelled into a multidimensional
hyperspace. Here the constants of nature could be different, and even
the speed of light could be several times faster than we experience.
If this happens, it would be possible to reach Mars in less than 3
hours and a star 11 light years away in only 80 days, Dr´┐Żscher and
H´┐Żuser say.

So is this all fanciful nonsense, or a revolution in the making? The
majority of physicists have never heard of Heim theory, and most of
those contacted by New Scientist said they couldn't make sense of
Dr´┐Żscher and H´┐Żuser's description of the theory behind their proposed
experiment. Following Heim theory is hard work even without Dr´┐Żscher's
extension, says Markus P´┐Żssel, a theoretical physicist at the Max
Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics in Potsdam, Germany.
Several years ago, while an undergraduate at the University of
Hamburg, he took a careful look at Heim theory. He says he finds it
"largely incomprehensible", and difficult to tie in with today's
physics. "What is needed is a step-by-step introduction, beginning at
modern physical concepts," he says.

The general consensus seems to be that Dr´┐Żscher and H´┐Żuser's theory is
incomplete at best, and certainly extremely difficult to follow. And
it has not passed any normal form of peer review, a fact that
surprised the AIAA prize reviewers when they made their decision. "It
seemed to be quite developed and ready for such publication,"
Mikellides told New Scientist.

At the moment, the main reason for taking the proposal seriously must
be Heim theory's uncannily successful prediction of particle masses.
Maybe, just maybe, Heim theory really does have something to
contribute to modern physics. "As far as I understand it, Heim theory
is ingenious," says Hans Theodor Auerbach, a theoretical physicist at
the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich who worked with
Heim. "I think that physics will take this direction in the future."

It may be a long while before we find out if he's right. In its
present design, Dr´┐Żscher and H´┐Żuser's experiment requires a magnetic
coil several metres in diameter capable of sustaining an enormous
current density. Most engineers say that this is not feasible with
existing materials and technology, but Roger Lenard, a space
propulsion researcher at Sandia National Laboratories in New Mexico
thinks it might just be possible. Sandia runs an X-ray generator known
as the Z machine which "could probably generate the necessary field
intensities and gradients".

For now, though, Lenard considers the theory too shaky to justify the
use of the Z machine. "I would be very interested in getting Sandia
interested if we could get a more perspicacious introduction to the
mathematics behind the proposed experiment," he says. "Even if the
results are negative, that, in my mind, is a successful experiment."
Who was Burkhard Heim?

Burkhard Heim had a remarkable life. Born in 1925 in Potsdam, Germany,
he decided at the age of 6 that he wanted to become a rocket
scientist. He disguised his designs in code so that no one could
discover his secret. And in the cellar of his parents' house, he
experimented with high explosives. But this was to lead to disaster.

Towards the end of the second world war, he worked as an explosives
developer, and an accident in 1944 in which a device exploded in his
hands left him permanently disabled. He lost both his forearms, along
with 90 per cent of his hearing and eyesight.

After the war, he attended university in G´┐Żttingen to study physics.
The idea of propelling a spacecraft using quantum mechanics rather
than rocket fuel led him to study general relativity and quantum
mechanics. It took an enormous effort. From 1948, his father and wife
replaced his senses, spending hours reading papers and transcribing
his calculations onto paper. And he developed a photographic memory.

Supporters of Heim theory claim that it is a panacea for the troubles
in modern physics. They say it unites quantum mechanics and general
relativity, can predict the masses of the building blocks of matter
from first principles, and can even explain the state of the universe
13.7 billion years ago.